Horizontal component of head waves

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Problem 5.11

In the early days of refraction exploration for salt domes, sketches of expected raypaths indicated that the angle of approach to the surface should have a large horizontal component, but measurements showed very little horizontal component. Controversy arose over whether the travelpaths could be as drawn. Explain the apparent discrepancy.


The raypath bending at the base of the low-velocity layer made travel through the LVL nearly vertical, as illustrated in problem 5.10a so the horizontal component at the surface was very small.

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Effects of weathered layer (LVL) and permafrost Stacking velocity versus rms and average velocities
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