Estimating lithology from stacking velocity
A velocity analysis at SP 100 of Figure 5.18a yields the plot shown in Figure 5.18b. Pick stacking velocity versus time pairs and calculate interval velocities.
Velocity-time pairs are listed in Table 5.18a. Depth and interval velocities . In Table 5.18a, values are for the intervals above the reflection picks.
The quality of Figure 5.18b does not permit accurate picking, but the NMO correction is fairly tolerant of errors. We did not tabulate time-velocity pairs for the events at (0.97, 2600), (1.48, 3000), (1.79, 3050), and (1.90, 3000), because we thought these events were multiples. Interpreters usually ignore stacking velocity values lower than those at shallower depths. Structure, faulting, and other features can distort velocity analyses.
What can you tell about the lithology from this?
The interval velocity values are plotted on Figure 5.18c with a smooth curve for Tertiary clastics plotted as a reference. The interval-velocity curve is everywhere above the reference, and above 1 km it is roughly parallel to but higher than the reference. The section above 1.8 km is probably mainly clastics whose velocity is increased, perhaps by age, cementation, uplift, or the presence of carbonates. The higher velocities below 1.8 km suggest carbonates. The velocity from 2.5 to 3.3 km is unreasonably high. While overlying reflections are mostly strong and continuous, data quality deteriorates here.
If the section that is present in the syncline but is missing over the anticline consists of poorly consolidated rocks, what values would you expect for a velocity analysis at SP 45?
Poorly consolidated rocks will have lower velocities than at SP 100 and this will lower the measured stacking velocities. Interval velocities between the same reflections, which will be deeper at SP 45, will probably be slightly higher than for the same intervals at SP 100.
Note the downdip thinning of the section to the left of SP 100 between 0.75 to 1.25 s. Suggest an explanation.
If the interval thickness remains constant, traveltime through it will decrease with increasing depth because the rocks have higher velocities as they are buried deeper and thus are under greater pressure.
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Also in this chapter
- Maximum porosity versus depth
- Relation between lithology and seismic velocities
- Porosities, velocities, and densities of rocks
- Velocities in limestone and sandstone
- Dependence of velocity-depth curves on geology
- Effect of burial history on velocity
- Determining lithology from well-velocity surveys
- Reflectivity versus water saturation
- Effect of overpressure
- Effects of weathered layer (LVL) and permafrost
- Horizontal component of head waves
- Stacking velocity versus rms and average velocities
- Quick-look velocity analysis and effects of errors
- Well-velocity survey
- Interval velocities
- Finding velocity
- Effect of timing errors on stacking velocity, depth, and dip
- Estimating lithology from stacking velocity
- Velocity versus depth from sonobuoy data
- Influence of direction on velocity analyses
- Effect of time picks, NMO stretch, and datum choice on stacking velocity