Effect of overpressure
|Series||Geophysical References Series|
|Title||Problems in Exploration Seismology and their Solutions|
|Author||Lloyd P. Geldart and Robert E. Sheriff|
|Pages||141 - 180|
|Store||SEG Online Store|
Figure 5.6a shows velocity versus depth for normally pressured shales. How do the Figure 5.9a velocities above and below the top of the abnormal pressure zone compare with the sand and shale velocity-depth curves of Figure 5.6a? What depth corresponds to normal pressure for the top overpressure? What porosity would you expect for the overpressured shale?
The transit times above and below the “top of the overpressure zone” are roughly and , respectively, that is, velocities of 8.0 and 5.7 kft/s (2.4 and 1.7 km/s). According to Figure 5.6a, the shale velocity at 6000 ft (2.1 km) should be higher (about 8.8 kft/s); the shale is probably somewhat undercompacted. The 5.7 kft/s velocity of the overpressured shale corresponds to a depth of about 1000 ft (300 m) and the porosity of the overpressured shale is probably close to 50%.
Plot the velocities for 100% water saturated sands from Figure 5.8a(i) on Figure 5.6a. How do they compare?
The values for 100% water saturated sands from Figure 5.8a(i) are listed below and plotted as triangles on Figure 5.6a. They lie slightly below the Gulf Coast sand curve.
The data from Figure 5.9a are plotted as squares on Figure 5.6a.
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|Geometry of seismic waves||Characteristics of seismic events|
Also in this chapter
- Maximum porosity versus depth
- Relation between lithology and seismic velocities
- Porosities, velocities, and densities of rocks
- Velocities in limestone and sandstone
- Dependence of velocity-depth curves on geology
- Effect of burial history on velocity
- Determining lithology from well-velocity surveys
- Reflectivity versus water saturation
- Effect of overpressure
- Effects of weathered layer (LVL) and permafrost
- Horizontal component of head waves
- Stacking velocity versus rms and average velocities
- Quick-look velocity analysis and effects of errors
- Well-velocity survey
- Interval velocities
- Finding velocity
- Effect of timing errors on stacking velocity, depth, and dip
- Estimating lithology from stacking velocity
- Velocity versus depth from sonobuoy data
- Influence of direction on velocity analyses
- Effect of time picks, NMO stretch, and datum choice on stacking velocity