# Category:Problems and Solutions

This is the category page for the book, Problems in Exploration Seismology and their Solutions by Lloyd P. Geldart and Robert E. Sheriff. All sections of the book can be located on the wiki below.

## Book description

Focusing on the basic theory required to solve practical problems, this book provides 212 problems, and solutions, which cover a wide range of issues, including least-squares methods, choosing velocities for various situations, z-transforms, determining 2D and 3D field geometries, and solving processing and interpretation problems.

This book is designed for students and for geophysicists who need a refresher on the basic theory required to solve practical problems. Geophysical texts often provide problems, but this book is unique in that it provides solutions also. The authors include a summary of the basic theory required to solve each problem. The 212 problems cover a wide range, including least-squares methods, choosing velocities for various situations, z-transforms, determining 2D and 3D field geometries, and solving processing and interpretation problems.

## Pages in category "Problems and Solutions"

The following 198 pages are in this category, out of 198 total.

### A

- Accuracy of normal-moveout calculations
- Acquisition direction for marine 3D surveys
- Adachi’s method
- User:Ageary/Introduction
- User:Ageary/Theory of seismic waves
- Alias filters
- Amplitude variation with offset for seafloor multiples
- Amplitude/energy of reflections and multiples
- Apparent-velocity filtering
- Attenuation calculations
- Attenuation of air waves
- AVO versus AVA and effect of velocity gradient

### B

### C

- Calculating crosscorrelation and autocorrelation
- Calculation of inverse filters
- Calculation of reflector depths and dips
- Causes of high-frequency losses
- Characteristics of different types of events and noise
- Checking solutions
- Circle shooting
- Comparison of refraction interpretation methods
- Complex coefficient of reflection
- Complex-trace analysis
- Convolution and correlation calculations
- Cross-dip

### D

- Deconvolution methods
- Deducing fault geometry from well data
- Delay time
- Dependence of resolvable limit on frequency
- Dependence of velocity-depth curves on geology
- Depth and dip calculations using velocity functions
- Derivative and integral operators
- Destructive and constructive interference for a wedge
- Determining lithology from well-velocity surveys
- Determining reflector location
- Determining static corrections from first breaks
- Determining the nature of flow structures
- Determining vibroseis parameters
- Differential moveout between primary and multiple
- Diffraction from a half-plane
- Diffraction traveltime curves
- Digital calculations
- Dip, cross-dip, and angle of approach
- Directional geophone responses to different waves
- Directivities of linear arrays and linear sources
- Directivity of a harmonic source plus ghost
- Directivity of a source plus its ghost
- Directivity of linear sources
- Distinguishing horizontal/vertical discontinuities
- Disturbance produced by a point source
- Diving waves

### E

- Effect of a hidden layer
- Effect of assumptions on refraction interpretation
- Effect of burial history on velocity
- Effect of coil inductance on geophone equation
- Effect of crosscurrents
- Effect of filtering on event picking
- Effect of horizontal velocity gradient
- Effect of local high-velocity body
- Effect of migration on fault interpretation
- Effect of migration on plotted reflector locations
- Effect of reflector curvature on a plane wave
- Effect of signal/noise ratio on event picking
- Effect of station angle on location errors
- Effect of time picks, NMO stretch, and datum choice on stacking velocity
- Effect of velocity change on VSP traveltime
- Effects of normal-moveout (NMO) removal
- Effects of weathered layer (LVL) and permafrost
- Equally inclined orthogonal geophones
- Estimating lithology from stacking velocity
- Evidences of thickening and thinning
- Extension of the sampling theorem

### F

- Far- and near-field effects for a point source
- Fault and stratigraphic interpretation
- Fault interpretation using time slices
- Faulting
- Feasibility of mapping a horizon using head waves
- Finite-difference migration – book
- Fourier series
- Fourier transforms of the unit impulse and boxcar
- Functional fits for velocity-depth data

### G

### H

### I

- Improvement of signal/noise ratio by stacking
- Influence of direction on velocity analyses
- Interpretation by the plus-minus method
- Interpretation of a depth-migrated section
- Interpretation of four-shot refraction data
- Interpretation of salt uplift
- Interpretation of sonobuoy data
- Interpreting engineering refraction profiles
- Interpreting marine refraction data
- Interpreting stacking velocity
- Interpreting uphole surveys
- Interrelationships among elastic constants
- Interval velocities
- Inverse filter to remove ghosting and recursive filtering

### L

### M

### P

- Phase of composite wavelets
- Plotting raypaths for primary and multiple reflections
- Poission’s ratio from P- and S-wave traveltimes
- Porosities, velocities, and densities of rocks
- Problems in Exploration Seismology and their Solutions
- Proof of a generalized reciprocal method relation
- Properties of a coincident-time curve
- Properties of minimum-phase wavelets

### R

- Rayleigh-wave relationships
- Reflection and refraction laws and Fermat’s principle
- Reflection and transmission coefficients
- Reflection-point smear for dipping reflectors
- Reflection/refraction at a liquid/solid interface
- Reflection/transmission coefficients at small angles and magnitude
- Reflections/diffractions from refractor terminations
- Reflectivity versus water saturation
- Reflector dip in terms of traveltimes squared
- Refraction blind spot
- Refractions and refraction multiples
- Reinforcement depth in marine recording
- Relation between average and rms velocities
- Relation between lithology and seismic velocities
- Relation between nepers and decibels
- Relationship for a dipping bed
- Response of a triangular array
- Ricker wavelet relations

### S

- S-wave conversion in marine surveys
- Salt lead time as a function of depth
- Second approximation for dip moveout
- Seismic sequence boundaries
- Selecting optimum field methods
- Selecting survey parameters
- Semblance
- Solving equations
- Sosie method
- Space-domain convolution and vibroseis acquisition
- Spatial sampling restrictions
- Stratigraphic interpretation book
- Streamer feathering due to cross-currents
- Structural style
- Sum of waves of different frequencies and group velocity
- Suppressing multiples by NMO differences

### T

### U

### V

### W

- Water reverberation filter
- Wave equation in cylindrical and spherical coordinates
- Waveshapes as hydrocarbon accumulation thickens
- Weathering and elevation (near-surface) corrections
- Weathering corrections and dip/depth calculations
- Weighted least-squares
- Well-velocity survey
- Wiener (least-squares) inverse filters
- Wyrobek’s refraction interpretation method