# Weathering and elevation (near-surface) corrections

Series | Geophysical References Series |
---|---|

Title | Problems in Exploration Seismology and their Solutions |

Author | Lloyd P. Geldart and Robert E. Sheriff |

Chapter | 8 |

Pages | 253 - 294 |

DOI | http://dx.doi.org/10.1190/1.9781560801733 |

ISBN | ISBN 9781560801153 |

Store | SEG Online Store |

## Contents

## Problem 8.18a

Show that when the source is below the LVL, weathering and elevation corrections for a geophone at the source are given by

**Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://en.wikipedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle \begin{align} \Delta t_{0} =2\left(E_{S} -D_{S} -E_{D} \right)/V_{H} +t_{uh}, \end{align} }**

where **Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://en.wikipedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle E_{S}}**
and **Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://en.wikipedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle E_{D}}**
are the elevations of the source point and datum, **Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://en.wikipedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle D_{S}}**
is the depth of the source, and **Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://en.wikipedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle t_{uh}}**
is the uphole time.

### Background

Corrections are necessary to eliminate the effect of changes in the elevation of the surface and in the thickness of and velocity in the LVL. The corrections in effect reduce the traveltimes to those that would be observed if the source and geophones were located on a reference datum, usually a horizontal plane below the base of the low-velocity layer. These corrections are called *static corrections* because they are the same for all reflections regardless of their arrival times.

### Solution

In Figure 8.18a, the correction to the traveltime for a wave going from the source at **Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://en.wikipedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle A}**
down to the datum is

**Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://en.wikipedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle \begin{align} \Delta t_{S} =\left(E_{S} -D_{S} -E_{D} \right)/V_{H}. \end{align} }****(**)

The correction for travel from the datum up to a geophone at the source point is

**Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://en.wikipedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle \begin{align} \Delta t_{g} =\Delta t_{S} +t_{uh}, \end{align} }****(**)

so the total correction for the traveltime for a geophone at the source point is

**Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://en.wikipedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle \begin{align} \Delta t_{0} =2\left(E_{S} -D_{S} -E_{D} \right)/V_{H} +t_{uh}. \end{align} }****(**)

## Problem 8.18b

If the split spread **Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://en.wikipedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle ACB}**
in Figure 8.18a is used to find the dip, what correction must be applied to the dip moveout?

### Solution

The dip moveout is obtained by subtracting traveltimes at sources **Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://en.wikipedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle A}**
and **Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://en.wikipedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle B}**
in Figure 8.18b. If traveltimes have not been corrected for weathering and elevation, the dip moveout must be corrected; this is the *differential weathering correction* **Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://en.wikipedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle \Delta t_{d}}**
. Using equation (8.18b) we have

**Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://en.wikipedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle \begin{align} \Delta t_{d} =(\Delta t_{g} )_{B} -(\Delta t_{g} )_{A} =(\Delta t_{S} +t_{uh} )_{B} -(\Delta t_{S} +t_{uh} )_{A}. \end{align} }****(**)

## Problem 8.18c

Derive an expression to correct the traveltime for a geophone at **Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://en.wikipedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle C}**
in Figure 8.18b **Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://en.wikipedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle A}**
and **Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://en.wikipedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle B}**
being source points.

### Solution

We use the first-break traveltimes **Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://en.wikipedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle t_{AC}}**
and **Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://en.wikipedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle t_{BC}}**
that correspond to the paths **Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://en.wikipedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle A'C''C}**
and **Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://en.wikipedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle B'C'C}**
. The velocity contrast at the base of the LVL is usually large enough that the paths **Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://en.wikipedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle C'C}**
and **Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://en.wikipedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle C''C}**
are so close to vertical that the distance **Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://en.wikipedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle C'C''}**
is very small. Hence the sum **Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://en.wikipedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle \left(t_{AC} +t_{BC} \right)}**
is given by

**Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://en.wikipedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle \begin{align} \left(t_{AC} +t_{BC} \right)\approx \left(A'B'\right)/V_{H} +2t_{w},\\ \mbox{so} \qquad\qquad t_{w} \approx \frac{1}{2} [\left(t_{AC} +t_{BC} \right)-(AB/V_{H})], \end{align} }****(**)

where **Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://en.wikipedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle t_{w}}**
is the traveltime through the LVL at **Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://en.wikipedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle C}**
, and **Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://en.wikipedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle D_{W} =V_{W} t_{w}}**
. Therefore the correction that effectively places the geophone at **Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://en.wikipedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle C}**
on the datum is

**Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://en.wikipedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle \begin{align} \Delta t_{C} =t_{w} +\left(E_{C} -D_{W} -E_{D} \right)/V_{H}. \end{align} }****(**)

We must add to this the correction that locates the source on the datum, namely **Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://en.wikipedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle \Delta t_{S}}**
, given by equation (8.18a). Thus the total correction for a traveltime recorded at

**Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://en.wikipedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle \begin{align} \Delta t_{C} =t_{w} +\left(E_{C} -D_{W} -E_{D} \right)/V_{H} +\Delta t_{S}. \end{align} }****(**)

## Problem 8.18d

The weathering and elevation corrections given by equations (8.18a) to (8.18g) assume that the source is below the base of the LVL. What changes are required if the source is within the LVL?

### Solution

When the source is within the LVL, the wave traveling down to the datum is in the LVL for the distance **Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://en.wikipedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle (D_{W} -D_{S}}**
, hence equation (8.18a) is changed to

**Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://en.wikipedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle \begin{align} \Delta t_{S} &=\left(D_{W} -D_{S} \right)/V_{W} +\left(E_{S} -D_{W} -E_{D} \right)/V_{H} \\ &=\left(E_{S} -D_{W} -E_{D} \right)/V_{H} +\Gamma _{S}, \end{align} }****(**)

where **Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://en.wikipedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle \Gamma _{S} =\left(D_{W} -D_{S} \right)/V_{W}}**
. Equation (8.18b) is unchanged provided we use the value of **Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://en.wikipedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle \Delta t_{S}}**
in equation (8.18h). Equation (8.18c) becomes

**Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://en.wikipedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle \begin{align} \Delta t_{0} &=\left(D_{W} -D_{S} \right)/V_{W} +2\left(E_{S} -D_{W} -E_{D} \right)/V_{H} +\left[\left(D_{W} -D_{S} \right)/V_{W} +t_{uh} \right]\\ &=2\Gamma _{S} +2\left(E_{S} -D_{W} -E_{D} \right)/V_{H} ]+t_{uh}. \end{align} }****(**)

Equation (8.18d) is unchanged provided we use equation (8.18h) for **Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://en.wikipedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle \Delta t_{S}}**
. Equation (8.18e) becomes

**Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://en.wikipedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle \begin{align} \left(t_{AG} +t_{BG} \right)=AB/V_{H} +2t_{w} +\left(\Gamma _{A} +\Gamma _{B} \right), \end{align} }**

where **Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://en.wikipedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle \Gamma _{A} =\Gamma _{SA}}**
, **Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://en.wikipedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle \Gamma _{B} =\Gamma _{SB}}**
. Thus, equation (8.18e) becomes

**Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://en.wikipedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle \begin{align} t_{w} =\frac{1}{2} [\left(t_{AG} +t_{BG} \right)-AB/V_{H} -(\Gamma _{A} +\Gamma _{B})]. \end{align} }****(**)

Equations (8.18f,g) are unchanged except that we must use the values of **Failed to parse (MathML with SVG or PNG fallback (recommended for modern browsers and accessibility tools): Invalid response ("Math extension cannot connect to Restbase.") from server "https://en.wikipedia.org/api/rest_v1/":): {\displaystyle t_{w}}**
and

## Continue reading

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Interpreting uphole surveys | Determining static corrections from first breaks |

Previous chapter | Next chapter |

Seismic equipment | Data processing |

## Also in this chapter

- Effect of too many groups connected to the cable
- Reflection-point smear for dipping reflectors
- Stacking charts
- Attenuation of air waves
- Maximum array length for given apparent velocity
- Response of a linear array
- Directivities of linear arrays and linear sources
- Tapered arrays
- Directivity of marine arrays
- Response of a triangular array
- Noise tests
- Selecting optimum field methods
- Optimizing field layouts
- Determining vibroseis parameters
- Selecting survey parameters
- Effect of signal/noise ratio on event picking
- Interpreting uphole surveys
- Weathering and elevation (near-surface) corrections
- Determining static corrections from first breaks
- Determining reflector location
- Blondeau weathering corrections