Finite-difference migration

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Problem 9.29

Derive the finite-difference migration equation (9.29d).


The wave equation (2.5a) becomes, for two dimensions,


We can simplify equation (9.29a) by replacing with (see problem 9.28). To replace derivatives in the coordinate system with derivatives in the system, we follow the procedure used in problem 2.6:

Substituting these expressions into equation (9.29a), we obtain the result


However, varies slowly because the coordinate system rides along with the wavefront and so we omit it. This gives the simplified wave equation,


Using the method of finite differences discussed below, this equation can be changed to


Approximate solutions of differential equations can be found using the method of finite differences. If we denote the value of at by the symbol , an approximate value of the derivative is


the error decreasing as . The second derivative at a given point can be found by finding the difference between two first derivatives close to the given point and dividing the difference by the distance between the two points. Derivatives with respect to more than one variable can be found using the same principle.


We use points spaced at intervals , , to evaluate the two derivatives in equation (9.29c):

Writing equation (9.29c) in the form

we substitute the above values of the two derivatives and obtain

Rearranging, we have

Solving for gives

Multiplying the first bracket by and the second one by , we get

which is equation (9.29d).

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