Interpretation - book
The use of iterative improvement is the well-known method commonly used in cases in which one must know the answer to find the answer. The images generated by migration should be representative of the physical earth. Any observable discrepancies are used as forcing functions in an iterative improvement method. Sometimes simple adjustments can be made, and other times, the whole imaging process has to be redone one or more times before a satisfactory solution can be obtained. In other words, interplay occurs between seismic processing and seismic interpretation - a manifestation of the well-accepted exchange between the disciplines of geophysics and geology (Ulrych and Clayton, 1976; Russell, 1988).
By using iterative improvement, one solves the seismic inverse problem. In other words, the imaging of seismic data requires a model of seismic velocity. Initially, a model of smoothly varying velocity is used. If the resulting image is not satisfactory, the velocity model is adjusted and a new image is formed. This process is repeated until a satisfactory image is obtained. In summary, iterative improvement is a means of adjusting the velocity function until, one hopes, an excellent subsurface image of the geology is obtained.
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Also in this chapter
- Reflection seismology
- Digital processing
- Signal enhancement
- The unit tangent vector
- The gradient
- The directional derivative
- The principle of least time
- The eikonal equation
- Snell’s law
- Ray equation
- Ray equation for velocity linear with depth
- Raypath for velocity linear with depth
- Traveltime for velocity linear with depth
- Point of maximum depth
- Wavefront for velocity linear with depth
- Two orthogonal sets of circles
- Migration in the case of constant velocity
- Implementation of migration
- Appendix B: Exercises
- Ulrych, T. J., and R. W. Clayton, 1976, Time series modeling and maximum entropy: Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, 12, 188–200.
- Russell, B. H., 1988, Introduction to seismic inversion methods: SEG Distinguished Instructor Series No. 2.
- Whaley, J., 2017, Oil in the Heart of South America, https://www.geoexpro.com/articles/2017/10/oil-in-the-heart-of-south-america], accessed November 15, 2021.
- Wiens, F., 1995, Phanerozoic Tectonics and Sedimentation of The Chaco Basin, Paraguay. Its Hydrocarbon Potential: Geoconsultores, 2-27, accessed November 15, 2021; https://www.researchgate.net/publication/281348744_Phanerozoic_tectonics_and_sedimentation_in_the_Chaco_Basin_of_Paraguay_with_comments_on_hydrocarbon_potential
- Alfredo, Carlos, and Clebsch Kuhn. “The Geological Evolution of the Paraguayan Chaco.” TTU DSpace Home. Texas Tech University, August 1, 1991. https://ttu-ir.tdl.org/handle/2346/9214?show=full.