Upstream (oil industry)
The oil and gas industry is usually divided into three major sectors: upstream (or exploration and production- E&P), midstream and downstream. The upstream sector includes searching for potential underground or underwater crude oil and natural gas fields, drilling exploratory wells, and subsequently drilling and operating the wells that recover and bring the crude oil or raw natural gas to the surface. There has been a significant shift toward including unconventional gas as a part of the upstream sector, and corresponding developments in liquefied natural gas (LNG) processing and transport.
Upstream Industry has traditionally experienced the highest number of Mergers, Acquisitions and Divestitures. M&A activity for upstream oil and gas deals in 2012 totaled $254 billion in 679 deals. A large chunk of this M&A, 33% in 2012, was driven by the unconventional/shale boom especially in the US followed by the Russian Federation and Canada. The aggregate value of Upstream E&P assets available for sale (Deals in Play) reached a record-high of $135 billion in Q3-2013. The value of Deals in Play doubled from $46 billion in 2009 to $90 billion in 2010. With ongoing M&A activity the level remained almost the same reaching $85 billion in Dec-2012. However, the first half of 2013 saw approximately $48 billion of net new assets coming on the market. Remarkably, the total value of Deals in Play in Q3-2013 nearly tripled over 2009 at $46 billion, in less than four years.
Digital technology is involved in daily operations occurred at upstream level of oilfield. Most of the oil fields are getting digitized and use latest software/app to send the data from one place to another. Traditionally, it requires a lot of paper work for managing operations. In modern Era, it uses cloud based software to store the data that can be accessed from anywhere using internet.
- Upstream, midstream & downstream
- Industry Overview from the website of the Petroleum Services Association of Canada (PSAC)
- Coalbed Methane Basic Information
- Digitalization's Place In Upstream's Future
- Whaley, J., 2017, Oil in the Heart of South America, https://www.geoexpro.com/articles/2017/10/oil-in-the-heart-of-south-america], accessed November 15, 2021.
- Wiens, F., 1995, Phanerozoic Tectonics and Sedimentation of The Chaco Basin, Paraguay. Its Hydrocarbon Potential: Geoconsultores, 2-27, accessed November 15, 2021; https://www.researchgate.net/publication/281348744_Phanerozoic_tectonics_and_sedimentation_in_the_Chaco_Basin_of_Paraguay_with_comments_on_hydrocarbon_potential
- Alfredo, Carlos, and Clebsch Kuhn. “The Geological Evolution of the Paraguayan Chaco.” TTU DSpace Home. Texas Tech University, August 1, 1991. https://ttu-ir.tdl.org/handle/2346/9214?show=full.