The generalized reciprocal method
In practice, raypaths that are suitable for first-break picking and are coincident at station D are not always found.  generalized Hagedoorn’s method of using raypaths (Figure 3.4-12b). Palmer’s technique, the generalized reciprocal method (GRM), takes into account offset separation D1D2 when computing the plus time
The definition of the minus time remains the same as in equation (47b), except for accounting for the raypath geometry in Figure (3.4-12b):
Note that more than one combination of raypaths associated with different separations of D1D2 can be used to measure (pick) the traveltimes on the right sides of equations (50a, 50b). Consequently, there is more than one estimate of the plus-minus times at a given (shot-receiver) station D. By carefully editing the first breaks, these estimates can be refined and reduced to a single estimate for each station.
To derive the near-surface model, the generalized reciprocal method uses the observed traveltimes from refracted arrivals that are assumed to be associated with the base of weathering. A problem arises when a nearsurface model with more than one layer needs to be defined. This is the case in areas covered with glacial tills and sand dunes. Several specialized techniques based on generalized linear inversion (GLI) have been devised for these problems ; . The GLI technique is an iterative, model-based approach that provides flexibility in defining a near-surface model consisting of arbitrarily parameterized multilayers. The process begins by computing the refracted arrival times from an assumed initial near-surface model. These computed traveltimes then are compared with the actual first-break picks (observed traveltimes). The procedure tries to minimize the difference between the computed and observed traveltimes by iteratively modifying model parameters for the near surface (such as velocities and thicknesses). A GLI method applicable to a single-layer near-surface model is presented next.
- First breaks
- Field statics corrections
- Flat refractor
- Dipping refractor
- The plus-minus method
- The least-squares method
- Processing sequence for statics corrections
- Model experiments
- Field data examples
- Topics in moveout and statics corrections
- Palmer (1981), Palmer, D., 1981, The generalized reciprocal method of refraction seismic interpretation: Geophysics, 46, 1508–1518.
- Hampson and Russell, 1984, Hampson, D. and Russell, B., 1984, First-break interpretation using generalized inversion: J. Can. Soc. Explor. Geophys., 20, 40–54.
- Schneider and Kuo, 1985, Schneider, W. A. and Kuo, S., 1985, Refraction modeling for statics corrections: 55th Ann. Internat. Mtg., Soc. Expl. Geophys., Expanded Abstracts, 295–299.