A natural hazard is a natural phenomenon that might have a negative effect on people or the environment. Natural hazard events can be grouped into two broad categories, which are geophysical hazards encompass geological and meteorological phenomena such as earthquakes, volcanic eruption, wildfire, cyclonic storms, flood, drought, and coastal erosion. Biological hazards can refer to a diverse array of disease and infestation.
Many geophysical hazards are related; for example, submarine earthquakes can cause tsunamis, and hurricanes can lead to coastal flooding and erosion. Floods and wildfires can result from a combination of geological, hydrological, and climatic factors. It is possible that some natural hazards are intertemporally correlated as well. An example of the division between a natural hazard and a natural disaster is that the 1906 San Francisco earthquake was a disaster, whereas living on a fault line is a hazard. Some natural hazards can be provoked or affected by anthropogenic processes (e.g. land-use change, drainage and construction).
- Organization of American States, Department of Regional Development; Organization of American States, Natural Hazards Project; United States Agency for International Development, Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance (1990). Disaster, planning and development: managing natural hazards to reduce loss. Washington, D.C.: Organization of American States. http://www.oas.org/dsd/publications/Unit/oea54e/oea54e.pdf. Retrieved 21 July 2014.
- Burton, I.; Kates, R.W.; White, G.F. (1993). The environment as hazard. Guilford Press. ISBN 9780898621594.
- Geography in the News - topical geography resources for teachers and students
- Kusky, Timothy M. (2003). Geological Hazards: A Sourcebook. Greenwood Press. https://books.google.com/books?id=ZnARN4s-WRkC&printsec=frontcover&dq=Geological+Hazards:+A+Sourcebook&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiLl6Sc8sbRAhVK2WMKHYF6DYAQ6AEIHDAA#v=onepage&q=Geological%20Hazards%3A%20A%20Sourcebook&f=false.
- Gill, Joel C.; Malamud, Bruce D. (December 2014). "Reviewing and visualizing the interactions of natural hazards". Reviews of Geophysics 52 (4): 680–722. doi:10.1002/2013RG000445. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2013RG000445/abstract.
- Graves, Philip E.; Bresnock, Anne E. (1 January 1985). "Are Natural Hazards Temporally Random?". Applied Geography 5 (1): 5–12. doi:10.1016/0143-6228(85)90002-5. SSRN 1679224.
- Gill, Joel C.; Malamud, Bruce D. (2017-03-01). "Anthropogenic processes, natural hazards, and interactions in a multi-hazard framework". Earth-Science Reviews 166: 246–269. doi:10.1016/j.earscirev.2017.01.002. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0012825216302227.