| This article originated from the Critical Issues Program authored by the American Geosciences Institute.
To learn more about AGI or the Critical Issues Program, visit http://www.americangeosciences.org/critical-issues.
The mining process is used to separate rock or ore from surrounding rock.There are four main mining methods: underground, open surface (pit), placer, and in-situ mining.The method used depends on the type of mineral resource that is mined, its location beneath the surface, and whether the resource is worth enough money to justify extracting it. The potential environmental impacts of mining depend on the resource being mined, how it is mined, and local factors like climate. In the United States, these impacts are now closely regulated, and mine areas are often reclaimed for another purpose after mining is over.
Why does mining matter?
Mining is essential to provide the 48,000 lbs of mineral resources per person per year that we use in the United States. Mineral resources are integral to the roads, vehicles, buildings, technologies, and personal products we rely on every day. Mining also produces a large proportion of the fuels that power and transport our society.
How does geoscience inform decisions about mining?
Geoscientists determine how to mine mineral resources economically, help to protect water and minimize environmental damages around the mine, and help reclaim disturbed land after mining.
- Metal Mining and the Environment, American Geosciences Institute
- Provides basic information about the mining cycle, from exploration for economic mineral deposits to mine closure. The booklet discusses the environmental aspects of metal mining and illustrates the ways science and technology assist in preventing or reducing environmental impacts.
- How many pounds of minerals are needed for each person in the U.S. per year?, AGI Critical Issues Program, http://www.americangeosciences.org/critical-issues/faq/how-many-pounds-minerals-are-required-average-person-year
- Whaley, J., 2017, Oil in the Heart of South America, https://www.geoexpro.com/articles/2017/10/oil-in-the-heart-of-south-america], accessed November 15, 2021.
- Wiens, F., 1995, Phanerozoic Tectonics and Sedimentation of The Chaco Basin, Paraguay. Its Hydrocarbon Potential: Geoconsultores, 2-27, accessed November 15, 2021; https://www.researchgate.net/publication/281348744_Phanerozoic_tectonics_and_sedimentation_in_the_Chaco_Basin_of_Paraguay_with_comments_on_hydrocarbon_potential
- Alfredo, Carlos, and Clebsch Kuhn. “The Geological Evolution of the Paraguayan Chaco.” TTU DSpace Home. Texas Tech University, August 1, 1991. https://ttu-ir.tdl.org/handle/2346/9214?show=full.