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Signature deconvolution works for air-gun records at sea as well as for vibroseis records on land (or sea). By removing the source signature, the resulting signature-free trace is the response of the earth and the receiver system to a spike impulse. Signature deconvolution requires knowledge of the signature wavelet to remove it from the trace. By implementing signature deconvolution at the front end of the processing sequence, fewer remnants of the signature will have to be removed at a later processing stage by predictive deconvolution.