Translations:Practical considerations - book/3/en

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Clearly, many other factors can obscure the information that one can extract from reflection amplitudes (Toksöz and Johnston, 1981[1]). Corrections are made for the effects of spherical divergence and raypath curvature. The gain of the recording instruments is taken into account. Ray-directivity effects and amplitude-variation-with-offset (AVO) effects can be considered. Migration corrects for reflector curvature and other geometric factors. After these corrections, the following effects remain: (1) effects caused by energy losses from absorption, scattering, transmissivity losses, and peg-leg multiples, and (2) effects caused by source strength, source coupling, geophone sensitivity, geophone coupling, and source-receiver offsets. Although the effects in group 1 are difficult to determine, usually they are relatively constant along a line and therefore do not obscure lateral variations. For high multiplicity of CMP data, the effects in group 2 can be compensated for by the use of surface-consistent amplitude corrections.

  1. Toksöz, M. N., and D. H. Johnston, eds., 1981, Seismic wave attenuation: SEG Geophysics Reprint Series No. 2.