Translations:Layers of the Earth/21/en

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The lithosphere is the outermost layer of the Earth ~100 km thick and is defined by its mechanical properties. This rigid layer includes the brittle upper portion of the mantle and the crust. The lithosphere is divided into 15 major tectonic plates, and it is at the boundary of these plates where major tectonic occurs, such as earthquakes and volcanoes. The lithosphere contains oceanic and continental crust that varies in age and thickness across locations and geologic time. The lithosphere is the coolest layer of the Earth in terms of temperature, with the heat from the lower layers generating the plate movements. The term "lithosphere" should not be confused with the use of "geosphere," which is used to indicate all of Earth's systems, including the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere.