Translations:Layer-cake model/11/en

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As soon as we start to ease some of the restrictions present in the layer-cake case, the simplicity rapidly dissipates. A 2D synthetic seismogram can simulate such effects as reflections from dipping reflectors and diffractions from sharp discontinuities. However, a 2D model has a shortcoming in that it cannot adequately handle energy coming from outside the plane of the model. A 3D model is required to take into account all such effects. Attempts to find closed mathematical expressions that model the wave motion in 3D complex geologic structures soon encounter insurmountable difficulties, so numerical methods on computers must be used instead. The ingenuity displayed in geophysics in the construction of computer-based models is indeed impressive (Hilterman et al., 1998[1]).

  1. Hilterman, F., J. W. C. Sherwood, R. Schellhorn, B. Bankhead, and B. DeVault, 1998, Identification of lithology in the Gulf of Mexico: The Leading Edge, 17, no. 2, 215–222.