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In the general sense, both interference and diffraction refer to effects resulting from the superposition of two or more waves at a given point in space. There is no essential mathematical difference between interference and diffraction. However, in more restricted usage, interference is used to describe effects that result from the superposition of two or more wave trains (as in the case of water-layer reverberations of seismic waves), and diffraction is used to describe interference effects caused by the presence of an aperture or an obstacle in the path of a wave (as in the bending of seismic waves around obstacles). In modern usage, the terms interference and diffraction still refer more or less to the types of problems studied by Hooke and Grimaldi, respectively.