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The dispersion of seismic body waves is very small under most circumstances, but surface waves may show appreciable dispersion in the presence of near-surface velocity layering. See Figure D-16. The dispersion of electromagnetic body waves is large in most earth materials. For ground roll and channel waves (see Figure C-2c, d), phase velocity decreases with frequency, sometimes called normal dispersion, and where velocity increases with frequency, anomalous dispersion.