# Translations:Dictionary:Complex-trace analysis/3/en

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where is the **quadrature series**, is the **amplitude of the envelope** of the trace (also called **reflection strength**), and is the **instantaneous phase**. Displays of instantaneous phase (or cosine of the instantaneous phase) show the continuity of an event. **Instantaneous frequency** is . Instantaneous frequency can be thought of as the frequency of the complex sinusoid that locally best fits a complex trace. Used to determine seismic attributes. In the space domain, "local" is sometimes used instead of "instantaneous". See Figure C-11 y Taner *et al.* (1979). Complex-trace analysis often involves the Hilbert transform.