Strikes and dips of geological features are measured on the field and then used to understand and model the subsurface. Dips are measured relative to a horizontal plane. When a geological feature presents a dip comprised between ~65° and 90° (i.e. vertical), the dip of the feature is considered steep.
A few dips for the most encountered geologic features:
- Sedimentary layers preserved from erosion, hiatus and tectonic activity (an ideal scenario): dip of 0° i.e. layers are horizontal.
- Normal faults: ~60°
- Reverse (thrust) faults: ~30°
- Salt sediments (diapirism), especially the domes structures can have very steep (>65°), vertical or even camber salt flanks.