FIG. M-16. Modulation types. (a) The message directly. (b) Amplitude modulation (AM); the amplitude of the carrier wave varies as the message. The amplitude of the carrier and its mirror image is the signal. (c) AC-bias modulation; the bias varies as the message. (d) Frequency modulation (FM); the frequency of the carrier wave varies. (e) Pulse-width modulation (PWM); the width of pulses varies. (f) Pulse-spacing modulation; the timing of pulses varies. See also Figure D-23.