Near surface geophysics
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Generally means investigating the uppermost 50–100 m. The objectives of near-surface geophysics are often noninvasive investigations of pollution problems, obtaining engineering information, locating and defining archaeological sites, near-surface structural features such as paleochannels and faults, cavities and tunnels, minerals, groundwater, pipelines, etc. Methods include surveys using gravity and magnetics, electrical resistivity, self potential (SP), electromagnetics, ground-penetrating radar (GPR), seismic reflection, seismic refraction, and other methods.