NMO for several layers with arbitrary dips

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Seismic Data Analysis
Series Investigations in Geophysics
Author Öz Yilmaz
DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.1190/1.9781560801580
ISBN ISBN 978-1-56080-094-1
Store SEG Online Store

Figure 3.1-15 shows a 2-D subsurface geometry that is composed of a number of layers, each with an arbitrary dip. We want to compute the traveltime from source location S to depth point D, then back to receiver location G, which is associated with midpoint M. Note that the CMP ray from midpoint M hits the dipping interface at normal incidence at D′, which is not the same as D. The zero-offset time is the two-way time along the raypath from M to D′.

Figure 3.1-15  Geometry for the moveout for a dipping interface in an earth model with layers of arbitrary dips. Adapted from [1].)

[1] derived the expression for traveltime t along SDG as


where the NMO velocity is given by


The angles α and β are defined in Figure 3.1-15. For a single dipping layer, equation (13) reduces to equation (8). Moreover, for a horizontally stratified earth, equation (13) reduces to equation (4). As long as the dips are gentle and the spread is small, the traveltime equation is approximately represented by a hyperbola (equation 5), and the velocity required for NMO correction is approximately the rms velocity function (equation 4).







See also


  1. 1.0 1.1 Hubral and Krey (1980), Hubral, P. and Krey, T., 1980, Interval velocities from seismic reflection time measurements: Soc. Expl. Geophys.

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NMO for several layers with arbitrary dips
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