Marine acquisition geometry

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Seismic Data Analysis
Series Investigations in Geophysics
Author Öz Yilmaz
ISBN ISBN 978-1-56080-094-1
Store SEG Online Store

Figure 7.1-2  A diagram showing the marine geometry for multicable and dual-source recording. See text for details. (Courtesy PGS Tensor.)

Old 3-D surveys were conducted using a single receiver cable and a single source array. This is known as line shooting. A modern marine 3-D survey involves shooting a number of closely spaced parallel 2-D subsurface lines. This is achieved by using multicables and multi-source arrays. While some surveys are known to have been recorded using 12 cables, the more common configuration is 4-8 cables with dual source arrays. The recording geometry for multicable marine surveys is similar to that of the multireceiver line recording geometry — known as swath shooting, used in land, shallow-water, and transition-zone surveys. Figure 7.1-2 shows marine recording geometry that involves 12 cables and dual source array. Since each source-cable combination yields midpoint locations along one subsurface line, this recording geometry yields 24 subsurface lines, simultaneously. As a result, multicable recording increases the productivity in acquisition by greatly reducing the time in the field. Nevertheless, issues with multicable recording arise in relation to large variations of source-receiver azimuths in relation to velocity estimation, migration and amplitude variation with offset analysis.

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