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There is a simple way to include references in your articles. This works the same way in Wikipedia. Add the reference right at the spot in the text you wish to reference it[1].

You do that just like this<ref>This is the text of the reference. [ It can contain links.]</ref>.

Then at the end of the article, add a section called References (at the two-equal-signs level), and a simple tag. This will gather the references in a list.


Tutorial video

Style for references

In the reference list, the form and punctuation shown in the examples below will be observed. Please note that (1) SEG no longer abbreviates titles of journals and names of institutions and publishers and (2) initials of secondary authors’ names precede surnames.

For types of references not included below, follow the guidelines for author-date citations in The Chicago Manual of Style, 15th edition.

Papers from journals

Kosloff, D. D., and E. Baysal, 1982, Forward modeling by a Fourier method: Geophysics, 47, 1402–1412.
Rouse, W. C., A. J. Reading, and R. P. D. Walsh, 1986, Volcanic soil properties in Dominica, West Indies: Engineering Geology, 23, 1–28.
Guitton, A., 2005, Multiple attenuation in complex geology with a pattern-based approach: Geophysics, 70, no. 5, V97–V107.

Capitalize only the first word of the title and proper nouns. Do not use quotation marks unless they are actually part of the title. Do not underline or use italics. Show the volume numbers in bold, omit the issue number, and show beginning and ending page numbers or article numbers if the journal does not use page numbers. For references to Geophysics papers since the beginning of 2005, however, include the issue number after the volume number.

Papers from magazines

Castagna, J. P., 1993, Petrophysical imaging using AVO: The Leading Edge, 12, 172–179.

Follow the instructions for papers from journals. If each issue of the magazine begins with page 1, include the issue number after the volume number, e.g., no. 3.


Davis, P. J., and P. Rabinowitz, 1975, Methods of numerical integration: Academic Press Inc.

Follow the instructions for papers from journals. Reference the full name of the publisher. Do not reference the city of publication or the number of pages in the book.

Articles in books

Baker, D. W., and N. L. Carter, 1972, Seismic velocity anisotropy calculated for ultramafic minerals and aggregates, in H. C. Heard, I. V. Borg, N. L. Carter, and C. B. Raleigh, eds., Flow and fracture of rocks: American Geophysical Union Geophysical Monographs 16, 157–166.

Theses and dissertations

Lodha, G. S., 1974, Quantitative interpretation of airborne electromagnetic response for a spherical model: M.S. thesis, University of Toronto.

Reference to a thesis or dissertation requires neither the name of the department nor the number of pages.


Zhou, B., 1992, Discussion on: “The use of Hartley transform in geophysical applications,” R. Saatcilar, S. Ergintav, and N. Canitez, authors: Geophysics, 57, 196–197.

Electronic materials

Hellman, H., 1998, Great feuds in science: Ten of the liveliest disputes ever: John Wiley & Sons, e-book.

Electronic journal citation with access date

Mungall, J. E., and J. J. Hanley, 2004, Origins of outliers of the Huronian Super group within the Sudbury Structure: Journal of Geology, 112, 59–70, accessed March 20, 2006;


Shindell, D., G. Faluvegi, N. Bell, and G. Schmidt, 2005, An emissions-based view of climate forcing by methane and tropospheric ozone: Geophysical Research Letters, 32, L04803, accessed March 31, 2006;

Web site (or part of Web site)

Roemmich, D., 1990, Sea-level change,, accessed July 14, 2003.

References to electronic material should include (1) the standard information, (2) the format (e-book, CD-ROM, DVD-ROM, etc.), and (3) the date of access if it is an online source. If an online-only source has a digital object identifier (DOI), the DOI must be used to cite it.

Oral presentations that are not published in a proceedings or abstract volume

Hubbard, T. P., 1979, Deconvolution of surface recorded data using vertical seismic profiles: Presented at the 49th Annual International Meeting, SEG.

Do not include city.

Expanded abstracts

Constable, S. C., 1986, Offshore electromagnetic surveying techniques: 56th Annual International Meeting, SEG, Expanded Abstracts, 81–82.

References to proceedings of many conferences are appropriate only if these proceedings are generally available to the reader. Authors are requested to avoid such references to material of limited availability. The SEG Expanded Abstracts do qualify as references because of their general accessibility.


Williams, K. E., 2007, Method and system for combining seismic data and basin modeling: U. S. Patent 7 280 918.

After name, indicate the year the patent was granted.


  1. This is the text of the reference. It can contain links.

See also