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(or thog’ ə nəl) Normal or at right angles.

Linear combinations of functions are orthogonal if they are linearly independent, i.e., if they cannot be expressed as combinations of each other.

The non-vanishing of the determinant of coefficients is a test for the orthogonality of a set of equations.

Orthogonality of vectors xi, xj can be expressed by stating the vanishing of their scalar product, .

See also Jacobian and matrix.

Sets of functions may also be considered orthogonal. See Orthogonal functions.