A surface seismic channel wave associated with a surface layer that has rigidity, characterized by horizontal motion perpendicular to the direction of propagation with no vertical motion. A trapped SH-mode, designated Q-wave, querwellen wave, LQ-wave, G-wave, or SH surface wave. Love waves may also be thought of as channel waves in the upper layer. Love waves can travel by different modes, designated by the number of nodal planes within the layer. However, usually only the zero mode is observed. The dispersion of Love waves can be used to calculate the thickness of the surface layer. Earthquake Love waves have velocities up to 4.5 km/s, faster than Rayleigh waves. Love waves are possible with a monotonic velocity gradient without a distinctive surface layer, but they cannot occur with a high-velocity near-surface layer. See Figure E-3 and Sheriff and Geldart (1995, 52–53). Named for A.E.H. Love, English mathematician.