Dictionary:Frequency standard

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A hydrogen maser, based on its 1.420 405 757 68 GHz resonance frequency of a hyperfine transition of atomic hydrogen, is the most stable of atomic clocks. A cesium beam based on 9.192 631 770 GHz hyperfine transition of 133Cs atoms provides the SI standard. A rubidium vapor cell based on 6.834 682 605 GHz transition of 87RB atoms is the least expensive of atomic clocks. Vibrating quartz crystals provide the most common inexpensive standards.