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FIG. T-4. 3-D surveying (a) Use of a cross-current to pull streamer off to the side; streamer positions are shown at 15 minute intervals. (b) Use of paravanes to pull marine source arrays to the side. Paravanes are also used to pull streamers to each side; sometimes as many as 12 streamers are used with two source arrays firing alternately, giving as many as 24 parallel seismic lines on one pass with the seismic ship.[1]

En-echelon arrangement of successive spreads, as produced in marine shooting when a cross-current causes the cable to drift at an angle to the seismic line. See Figures F-6 and T-4.

FIG. F-6. Feathering of a marine streamer. See also Figure T-4




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  1. Sheriff, R. E; Geldart, L. P (August 1995). Exploration Seismology, 2nd Ed. Cambridge Univ. Press. p. 454, 455, 456. ISBN 9780521468268.
  2. Whaley, J., 2017, Oil in the Heart of South America, https://www.geoexpro.com/articles/2017/10/oil-in-the-heart-of-south-america], accessed November 15, 2021.
  3. Wiens, F., 1995, Phanerozoic Tectonics and Sedimentation of The Chaco Basin, Paraguay. Its Hydrocarbon Potential: Geoconsultores, 2-27, accessed November 15, 2021; https://www.researchgate.net/publication/281348744_Phanerozoic_tectonics_and_sedimentation_in_the_Chaco_Basin_of_Paraguay_with_comments_on_hydrocarbon_potential
  4. Alfredo, Carlos, and Clebsch Kuhn. “The Geological Evolution of the Paraguayan Chaco.” TTU DSpace Home. Texas Tech University, August 1, 1991. https://ttu-ir.tdl.org/handle/2346/9214?show=full.