# Dictionary:Electromagnetic method (EM method)

{{#category_index:E|electromagnetic method (EM method)}}
(i lek, trō mag net’ ik) A method in which the magnetic and/or electric fields associated with artificially generated subsurface currents are measured. In general, electromagnetic methods are considered to be those in which the electric and magnetic fields in the earth satisfy the diffusion equation (which ignores displacement currents) but not Laplace’s equation (which ignores induction effects) nor the wave equation (which includes displacement currents). One normally excludes methods such as *ground-penetrating radar* (q.v.) that use microwave or higher frequencies (and which consequently have little effective penetration) and methods that use dc or very low frequencies where induction effects are not important (resistivity and IP methods). **Natural field methods** (such as Afmag and magnetotellurics) employ natural energy as the source; **controlled source electromagnetis methods** (CSEM) (such as loop-loop techniques) require a man-made source. See Figure E-7.