Dictionary:Dix formula

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For reflections from a sequence of flat, parallel isotropic layers and small offsets, the interval velocity in the nth layer can be recursively extracted from the stacking velocities, using


where and are the stacking velocities from the datum to reflectors above and below the layer and and are reflection arrival times. This formula is often misused to calculate interval velocities in situations that do not satisfy Dix's assumptions. Named for C. Hewitt Dix (1905 - 1984), American geophysicist. See Dix (1955) [1]. Some call this the Postma equation.



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  1. Dix, C. H., 1955, Seismic velocities from surface measurements: Geophysics, 20, 68–86.
  2. Whaley, J., 2017, Oil in the Heart of South America, https://www.geoexpro.com/articles/2017/10/oil-in-the-heart-of-south-america], accessed November 15, 2021.
  3. Wiens, F., 1995, Phanerozoic Tectonics and Sedimentation of The Chaco Basin, Paraguay. Its Hydrocarbon Potential: Geoconsultores, 2-27, accessed November 15, 2021; https://www.researchgate.net/publication/281348744_Phanerozoic_tectonics_and_sedimentation_in_the_Chaco_Basin_of_Paraguay_with_comments_on_hydrocarbon_potential
  4. Alfredo, Carlos, and Clebsch Kuhn. “The Geological Evolution of the Paraguayan Chaco.” TTU DSpace Home. Texas Tech University, August 1, 1991. https://ttu-ir.tdl.org/handle/2346/9214?show=full.