3-D seismic exploration exercises
Exercise 7-1. From the time slices in Figure 7.E-1, infer the structural pattern in the subsurface.
Exercise 7-2. Approximately at what angle is the pseudosun illuminating the time slice in Figure 7.5-3?
Exercise 7-3. What are the advantages and disadvantages of dip-line and strike-line shooting in terms of (a) crossline smear, (b) DMO, (c) spatial aliasing, and (d) velocity estimation?
Exercise 7-4. Suppose you did a 2-D survey over the salt dome structure shown in Figure 7.3-9 and applied 2-D imaging to your data. Then you did a 3-D survey and 3-D imaging. Consider mapping the top of the salt. Which one, 2-D or 3-D seismic, will imply a salt dome structure with a larger spatial extent and structural closure?
Exercise 7-6. Consider a dual-boat operation in a 3-D survey such that line spacings alternate between 112.5 and 37.5 m. Is this equivalent to a single-boat operation with 75-m line spacing?
Figure 7.E-1 Part 1: Time slices from a marine 3-D survey (see Exercise 7-1). (Data courtesy Amoco Europe and West Africa, Inc.)
Figure 7.E-1 Part 2: Time slices from a marine 3-D survey (see Exercise 7-1). (Data courtesy Amoco Europe and West Africa, Inc.)
Figure 7.5-3 Processing time-slice data for improved interpretation: (a) A time slice, (b) after 2-D smoothing, and (c) edge enhancement; (d) another time slice with pseudo-sun illumination applied to enhance the intensive fracturing associated with salt diapirism. (Data in (a) courtesy Shell Oil Company and Esso, and data in (d) BP Amoco.)
- Introduction to 3-D seismic exploration
- 3-D survey design and acquisition
- Processing of 3-D seismic data
- 3-D poststack migration
- 3-D prestack time migration
- Interpretation of 3-D seismic data
- Mathematical foundation of 3-D migration