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'''William Maurice Ewing'''(May 12, 1906 – May 4, 1974) was an American geophysicist and
#REDIRECT [[Maurice Ewing]]
== Biography ==
''Source: Maurice Ewing by Dolores Proubasta, The Leading Edge Mar 1991, Vol. 10, No. 3, pp. 15-20''
=== Early years and Education ===
William Maurice Ewing was born on May 12, 1906, to Floyd
and Hope Hamilton Ewing. Maurice (Pronounced Morris), like
his six younger siblings, was heir to the self-discipline and hard
work of a farming family that coaxed a livelihood from the harsh
flats of the Texas Panhandle. Recreation and relaxation would
remain foreign concepts throughout his life; Ewing worked twice
as long and hard as anybody. There were no days off.
Ewing received a bachelor’s in 1926 with honors in math and
physics, a master’s in 1927 in physics, and a doctorate in 1931
from Rice where he was Hohenthal Scholar (1923-26) and a
Fellow in Physics (1926-29). To support himself, Ewing worked on
seismic crews during the summers, and this was the extent of his
formal training in geophysics.
=== Professional Career ===
After a year at the University of Pittsburgh as a physics
instructor, in 1930 Ewing joined the Lehigh University faculty. Four
years later, an unexpected visit by Professor Richard Field, of
Princeton, and William Bowie, of the US Coast and Geodetic
Survey, altered the course of his career completely.
The geologic problem they hoped Ewing could unravel was
whether the deep place where the continental shelf ends was a geologic fault or the result of outbuilding of sediment from the land.
Field and Bowie, who knew about Ewing through papers he
presented at the American Geophysical Union, thought that per-
haps seismic measurements, with which Ewing had become
familiar while working on crews, could be used in the
investigation. The answer was affirmative, provided one had adequate
equipment and a ship. As for Ewing’s willingness, he would sum
it up years later in his biography, Z’Jre Floor of the Sea: Maurice
Ewing and the Search to Understand the Earth. “If they had asked
me to put seismic equipment on the moon instead of the bottom
of the ocean I’d have agreed, I was so desperate for a chance to
do research.” But then, according to his biographer, William
Wertenbaker, “Ewing was desperate to learn something most of the
With a $2000 grant from the Geological Society of America,
Ewing set out in 1935 to do what had never been tried before-
explosion seismology at sea. Onboard the Coast Survey’s
Oceunogrupher and later that year on the Woods Hole Oceanographic
Institution’s Atluntis, Ewing, with Albert Crary and H.M. Ruther-
ford, began tests to trace the basement rock off the coast of Vir-
ginia in an outcrop almost to the edge of the continental shelf.
Their outdated equipment was borrowed from an oil company that
Ewing had worked for.
Using the seismic refraction method, Ewing determined that
the continental shelf was a thick wedge of sediment (the tidelands
where oil forms) underlain by the continental basement. The
answer to Field and Bowie’s academic query didn’t, however,
shake any foundations other than those of Ewing’s own career.
After his experience at sea, all he wanted to do thereon was solve
the geophysical enigmas of the earth, and Ewing firmly believed
that all the clues lay beneath the ocean basins. His attempts to
obtain an annual grant from several major oil companies in return
for the data he could gather regarding the offshore’s hydrocarbon
potential were unsuccessful. His venture, he was told, wasn’t
worth a cent of the shareholder’s money.
A grant from the John Simmon Guggenheim Foundation enabled
Ewing to take an indefinite leave of absence from Lehigh which
had just promoted him from assistant professor of physics to as-
sociate professor of geology. (He always felt that this grant was
the turning point in his career.)
Ewing began conducting experiments in the North Atlantic
basin assisted first by Crary and Rutherford and then by Allyn
Vine (later of Alvin research sub fame), Norman Webster, George
Woollard, and Wonel. The challenges of moving their old-
fashioned gear from 100 fathoms to the then-formidable depth of
1000 fathoms were compounded by limited access (two weeks a
year) to the Atlantis. And considering that the ship’s main scien-
tific objectives were other than Ewing’s, the most they managed
to obtain during those two weeks was three to four good records.
Always pressed for time Ewing rigged ingenious data-gather-
ing devices to work alongside the seismic equipment. One of those
instruments was a deep-sea camera (the first ever) he and Vine
had built on a shoestring grant from the National Geographic
Society. No one else was interested in backing underwater photog-
raphy because expert oceanographers maintained that water in
depths greater than a few tens of fathoms was too murky to get
any images of the bottom.
The scientific community was indeed astounded when, in 1940,
Ewing, his younger brother Robert, Vine, and Worxel obtained
clear shots of ripples and bare cobbles (proving that currents ex-
isted at the bottom, something denied until then) and an abundance
of animal life and tracks (contrary to biologists’ predictions).
Just before the outbreak of World War II, Ewing accepted the
offer of Columbus Iselin to work at Woods Hole on contracts from
the newly created National Defense Research Committee. Iselin
liked to say that he was just as impressed by Ewing’s acumen in
math and physics as by the fact that he didn’t get seasick.
As a research associate at Woods Hole, Ewing with Vine, Wor-
xel, and Crary engaged in the application of underwater sound and
photography to the problems of submarine warfare. Among
Ewing’s contributions during the war years was Sound Trunsmis-
sion in Sea Water, the definitive manual on the physical and
oceanographic factors that regulate underwater sound. One of its
tenets was that the various temperature layers in seawater can
refract sound (not unlike earth strata) and thus shield submarines
from sonar detection. To solve this problem, Ewing and Vine
resorted to the bathythermograph (which they promptly renamed
BT). Developed by meteorologist Athelstan Spilhaus at Woods
Hole, the BT, as it was lowered, made a continuous record of
water temperature. However, since it took up to a minute for each
reading, it was obviously too slow for defense purposes. Ewing
and Vine soon had it converted to be used without having to stop
the ship, making it a more effective instrument for naval opera-
Toward the end of the war, Ewing and Worzel developed a
long-range system of underwater signaling. They detected, from
10 000 km away, a small TNT charge detonated in the deep-sound
channel, a feature present in much of the ocean depths. The sound
fixing and ranging system--SoFAn was the Navy’s acronym-had
possibilities in air-sea rescue, relief of submarines under attack,
location of unknown sea mounts on an ocean-wide basis, explan-
a tion of the T-phase in earthquake seismology, and other naval and
oceanographic operations. To Ewing, however, it was far more
important that wartime research was developing techniques they
could later use in peacetime science
In June 1946 Ewing assumed a chair at Columbia University
(though he remained a research associate at Woods Hole) to lec-
ture and do research in geophysics. Worzel, Nelson Steenland,
and David Ericson went with him to Columbia. And, as expected,
many of the remarkable discoveries of the ensuing period were
made possible by instruments they had developed during the war.
For the first large Ewing-led expedition in the summer of ‘47
to explore the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, he had Atlantis outfitted with
an echo sounder he and Worzel had modified to record soundings
from depths up to 4000 fathoms-a capability never before real-
ized. More (and, for the first time realistic) information was
gathered about the Ridge during this voyage than had been since
it was first discovered, or rather “suspected,” during the 1872-
76 Challenger Expedition. It turned out to be the planet’s single
largest geologic feature, equal in area to all the dry land. Ewing
described it as “millions of square miles of a tangled jumble of
massive peaks, saw-toothed ridges, earthquake-shattered cliffs,
valleys, lava formations of every conceivable shape.” And with
Tolstoy and Heezen, Ewing concluded in a paper that “the Ridge
is not at all like mountains on the continents.”
No less startling was the discovery of the great abyssal plains
which proved, once again, that the topography of the ocean bot-
tom was unlike anything terrestrial or imagined before. It ap-
peared, in fact, that any notion previously entertained about the
seafloor was suspect.
Improved instruments and Ewing’s drive to try anything
presumably more efficient made his cruises far superior technical-
ly and scientifically to any previous attempts at marine explora-
tion. For example, Ewing perfected underway seismic shooting
without having to stop and start the ship. Instead, just before each
TNT charge exploded, the line towing the hydrophones was
released, allowing it to float inertly while the signals were
recorded. The line was then hauled back. Ewing was very proud
of this development.
Continued efforts to measure the thickness of sediments in the
ocean basin at various locations culminated in the finding, by 1949,
that it was, more or less uniformly, only 2000 ft thick. This made
it possible to probe deeper.
“Unexpectedly,” Ewing wrote in 1955 in an unpublished
report on the history of Lamont, “we were able to measure the
thickness of the basaltic layer beneath the sediment and show that
it was only about two miles in thickness. This constitutes the en-
tire crust of the earth under the ocean basin, and the contrast be-
tween this thin crust and the crust twenty miles thick or so which
underlies the continents, amounts to proof of the permanence of
the ocean basins.” (Permanence was counter to the looming theory
of seafloor spreading. More about this later.)
F or every question answered, a thousand new ones arose. There
were no bounds to the avenues of scientific query-if only, that
is, they had full-time access to a ship and better facilities than three
small rooms in a basement. At least one problem resolved itself
just in timeto prevent Ewing from leaving for MIT where he was
offered everything he lacked at Columbia.
In 1949, through a gift of the estate of the late Thomas W.
Lamont to Columbia University, the Lamont Geological Obser-
vatory came into being with Ewing as its founding director.
Liberated from their dungeon, his team moved about 24 km north
of the university to the Lamont mansion, high above the Hudson
River and, for their research purposes, conveniently away from
the noise pollution of New York.
While Ewing considered the creation of Lamont the second
milestone in his career, still nothing ranked higher in his wish list
than gaining unlimited access to a ship. His association of nearly
two decades with Atlantis had proven fruitful but often frustrat-
ing . And then Worzel found Vema, a 202 ft, three-masted schooner
that, he felt, was everything they wanted. The only problem was
its $100 000 price tag, an amount that Ewing couldn’t raise on
short notice. Worzel pressed Ewing into borrowing the money
from Columbia University lest they miss the chance to ever own
a ship, especially one so fine.
P redictably, the RV Vema-the largest research ship in the world
at the time-became Ewing’s most prized possession: a real
laboratory. (Buildings, he used to say, were just places to store
data.) Its first scientific voyage was in the spring of 1953, and
from that moment on, the net effect the vessel had on Ewing’s re-
search associates-already getting overcrowded and always over-
worked at the Lamont mansion-was that everyone’s workload
quadrupled. Some of them were also required to risk life and limb
at sea for months at a time
Ewing himself had a close call in January 1954, while trying
to secure some oil drums that had broken loose during a heavy
sea between Cape Hatteras and Bermuda; he, along with his
brother John and the ship’s first and second mates, Charles Wilkie
and Mike Brown, were swept overboard. The superb seamanship
of Captain MacMurry brought the ship full about time and again
to rescue Brown, John Ewing, and finally after 45 minutes,
Maurice. But Wilkie was never found.
Not even tragedy could slow the Roman-galley-like tempo of
Vemu. Ewing’s insistence on exacting top efficiency out of the
ship and her crew produced far more information than could be
analyzed on board or back at Lamont. Most cumbersome were the
numerous cores obtained on each voyage-even though working
up the data of a single one could easily take a year. To his critics
Ewing would simply say, ‘When you can show me two alike, I’ll
stop and study them in detail.”
(In the hands of Jim Hays, Lloyd Burckle, and other paleon-
tologists and sedimentologists, the large collection of Lamont cores
became the cornerstone of modem paleoceanography, which is
now being furthered by deep-sea scientific drilling.)
A code was devised so Ewing could keep tabs of the daily booty
of data. Worzel explains, “Each type of measurement could be
reported by simply stating its assigned number. But Ewing wasn’t
satisfied just knowing, for example, how many cores were taken;
he wanted much more detail. Our codes ended up having 30 or
40 number groups detailing the work in progress, and these mes-
sages arrived in the lab every other day while the ship was at sea.”
Vema, which &s-crossed every ocean, was the first American
research vessel in 1961 to sail around the world. The following
year the Robert D. Conrad became Lamont’s second ship.
In the ’50s and ‘609, Ewing and the Lamont staff under his
direction conceived most of the observation techniques for the
study of the ocean floor. Marine seismologist George Shor of
Scripps called Lamont-Doherty “the world’s greatest widget fac-
tory.” Those “absolutely magnificent widgets,” as Shor called
them, made it possible for Lamont to produce more research per
dollar than anyone else. They ushered in modem deep-sea tech-
nology with continuous soundings, precision depth recording, seis-
mic refraction and reflection measurements and profiling,
long-piston coring and simultaneous thermal gradient measure-
ments, gravity measurements from surface ships, flux-gate and
nuclear resonance magnetometer measurements, underwater
photography, air-gun sound sources, deepwater sampling for
radioactive measurements, nephelometry measurements, 3.5 kHz
sonoprobe measurements, seismic buoys in conjunction with con-
tinuous profiling, oriented cores from the ocean floor, integrated
measurements of phenomena from a single wire, and much more.
Equally prolific was their literary output. Ewing was a great
believer in the power of publication; he thought it a waste of time
to write master’s or doctoral theses that weren’t acceptable in the
scientific press. Which brings up another unique facet of Dot, the
professor: the exceedingly long timehis graduate students lingered
at Columbia in the pursuit of a degree; 5-10 years wasn’t unusual.
This regime produced at least 367 bibliographical items attribu-
table to Ewing, yet he was the sole author of only a few; the rest
were joint efforts born of a curious sort of scientific bartering.
As the late William Donn remembered, “He was great at start-
ing research studies that were completed only because one of the
faithfnl would be following behind. Many of us traded on his scien-
tific appetite. Often, when I had an interesting and somewhat sticky
wave-related problem, I would show him the observations and ask
if he wanted to buy a piece of it. His eyes would light up, and he
always bought in, leading to a successfnl conclusion of the study.”
B ack when Lamont was instituted in ‘49, a fund of about $50 000
was raised by the department chairman, John Kerr, from various
oil and mining companies. The parsimonious use of these funds
stretched them for four years. Afterwards, the brunt of money-
raising for most of their needs fell on Ewing-something that
would bear heavily on him for the following 22 years at the ob-
servatory. Alas, “policy ,” as he used to say, “is sabotage originat-
ing in higher echelons.” Neither policy nor fiscal considerations
however, tempered his hunger for science. Shortly after the move
to the Lamont estate, Ewing started to expand on the earthquake
seismology research that he had initiated at the Columbia campus
where traffic noise had severely hampered their measurements. At
first, this branch of investigation was pursued mainly by Ewing
and graduate student Frank Press (now president of the National
Academy of Sciences). Eventually they designed a seismograph
far superior to any that existed and used it in a network of stations
which later served as a model for the Worldwide Standardized
Seismograph Network.
A major development of the Ewing-Press partnership was the
interpretation of the mysterious “coda” which appeared in seis-
mograms only when an ocean lay between the source and the
recording station. The phenomenon consists of great big swoop-
ing waves-surface waves-and seismologists considered it mean-
ingless. Not so Ewing, who had noticed the coda’s recurrence in
the records of the Coast and Geodetic Survey office during the
war and was determined to understand its significance. Press and
Ewing eventually identified most of the components of the coda
as dispersive wave trains of Love and Raleigh waves, a knowledge
that has greatly contributed to the study of the deep earth. This
work culminated in 1957 in the classic book, Elastic Waves in
Layered Media, by Ewing, Jardetzky, and Press.
Other students worked on each of the various branches of geo-
physics of particular interesto Ewing. Turbidity currents, one of
the chief forces that shape the ocean floor, were first proposed by
Ewing and Bruce Heezen as they investigated the possible causes
for the destruction of transatlantic telegraph cables 400 miles away
from the epicenter of the 1929 Grand Banks earthquake. In 1952,
Heezen was put in charge of drafting a map of the North Atlan-
tic seafloor based on echo soundings obtained with the precision
depth recorder developed at Lament. The result was a faithful and
never-before imagined picture of the geologic and geographic fea-
tures of the ocean floor. In 1959 the Geological Society of America
published ZIae Floors of the Oceans: 7he North Atlantic, by Ewing,
Heezen, and Marie Tharp, a small book depicting-for the first
time-the submerged landscape.
The Ewing-Heezen collaboration also identified the vast extent
of the Mid-Ocean Ridge through the correlation of sounding and
earthquake data.
Joe Worzel, Ewing’s indefatigable lieutenant, was in charge of
gravity measurements at sea. The goal was to collect enough of
them to produce conclusive information on the crustal transition
from ocean to continent, volcanic island arcs, mid-ocean ridges,
oceanic islands and sea mounts, and the shape of the earth in
Brother John Ewing, who is now senior scientist emeritus at
Woods Hole, worked on ocean bottom reflection seismic. In 1960,
he developed the seismic reflection profiler, which automatically
converts echoes into a continuous tracing of strata beneath the
seafloor. With this instrument, Lamont was fust able to visualize
ancient layers of sediments and the shape of the crust underneath.
A hundred thousand miles of records later, when Maurice Ewing
saw the flatness of the old layers across the Atlantic and Pacific,
he was reassured of the permanence of the ocean basins. HOW
c&d buried sediments remain undisturbed if spreading and/or
drifting were going on?
With William Dorm he worked on ice origins. Confronted with
the puzzle of Paleozoic glaciations in the southern hemisphere,
DOM dared utter “continental drift” to his mentor as the only
.plausible answer to the phenomenon. Ewing examined the infor-
mation and curtly replied, “You are probably right,” then changed
the subject, but not his mind.
Y et another field of enquiry was marine magnetics, of which
Ewing was an ardent proponent; he had been towing mag-
netometers behind his ships--which some considered a senseless
effort-since 1948. It was with Ewing’s marine magnetometer,
one he converted from a WWII airborne model, that a pattern of
marine magnetic reversals was first discovered by Raff and Mason
of Scripps. However, as high as Ewing’s expectations were regard-
ing the study of changes ln the earth’s magnetic field, he didnt ’
envision that it would rewrite the history of the earth’s surface the
way it happened. It was up to his disciples and colleagues-Allen
Cox, Dennis Hayes, Jim Heirtzler, Mark Langseth, Xavier Le-
Pichon, Drummond Matthews, Jack Oliver, Nell Opdyke, Walter
Pitman, Lynn Sykes, Manik Talwani, and Fred Vine, among
others-to realize that the data accumulated strongIy supported
some mind-blowing concepts, i.e., seafloor spreading and con-
tinental drift. Withal, Lament remained a bastion of the anti-
spread-and-drift mindset until 1965-66 when Pitman’s startling
Elronin-19 magnetic profile made believers out of almost everyone
(Ewing was reticent).
Some have speculated that Ewing might have brought earlier
refinemento the farfetched sequent early “drifters” had he looked at the data with the eyes
of a geologist. “Geologists spend their time poking around trying
to explain this or that little detail,” he once complained. “I keep
wanting to say, ‘Why don’t you try to see what’s making it all
happen? ’ ’ ’
Ignoring his own prescription, Ewing labeled the concepts of
seafloor spreading and continental drift “rubbish” (a reaction,
perhaps, to having overlooked their evidence in the first place)
while countenancing their investigation and thus enabling those
under his aegis to bring about the new age of geology.
As Lamont prospered, the diversity of work also increased.
Ewing, who couldn’t stay away from new scientific enticements,
sometimes neglected those areas to which his knowledge and in-
tuition were best suited. His contributions to half a dozen fields
of science notwithstanding, the hallmarks resulted from projects
to which he paid sustained attention. Towering examples are his
elucidations of the coda, turbidity currents, the oceanic crust, and
the Mid-Ocean Ridge.
In 1969, through a large grant from the Hemy L. and Grace
Doherty Charitable Foundation, the Observatory was renamed
Lamont-Doherty, and it appeared that Ewing might be finally able
to raise the salaries of his staff to “half’ (as he used to lament)
what Woods Hole, Scripps, or other research institutions were
paying their people. Eventually, the financial skirmishes that un-
derlie all research proved too much for the scientist. In the spring
of ‘72, Ewing shocked everyone with his resignation and un-
ceremonious departure from the Observatory that would forever
bear his imprint. He went to the University of Texas-Galveston to
head its Marine Sciences Institute.
Ewing was addressing the applications of multichannel CDP
seismology in solving problems of the continent-ocean transition
zone when a stroke claimed his life on May 4,1974. In his lifetime,
he had acquired over half the offshote geophysical information
gathered until then. He proved that the ocean basins were more
than mere water receptacles, turning oceanic research, as some-
one observed, “from a polite academic backwater into one of the
most exciting fields of enquiry beiig pursued todey.”
Few possess the kind of scientific intuition that COnSiStdy
identifies lines of inquiry leading to momentous discoveries.
Ewing did so not only in the field of geophysics but in merine
geology and seismology as well. And others have been working
on the details ever since.
=== List of Honors Received by Maurice Ewing ===
* 1938 Guggenheim Fellow
* 1949 Member, National Academy of Sciences
* 1949 Honorary doctor of science, Washington and Lee Unlverslty
:: Arthur L. Day Medalist, Geological Society of America
* 1951 Member, American Academy of Arts and Sciences
* 1952 Honorary doctor of science, University of Denver
:: Member, Philosophical Society of Texas
:: Guggenheim Fellow
* 1955 Guggenheim Fellow
:: Agassiz Medal, National Academy of Sciences
:: Distinguished US Public Service Award, US Navy
* 1956 Foreign Member (Section for Sciences), Royal Nethedands
:: Academy of Sciences and Letters
* 1957 Honorary doctor of science, Lehigh Unlversity
:: Honorary doctor of science, University of Utrecht
:: William Bowle Medal, American Geophysical Union
:: Order of Naval Merit, Rank of Commander, Argentine Republic
:: Honorary Member, SEG
* 1959 Member, American Philosophical Society
* 1960 Vetlesen Prize, Columbia University (the Nobel-equivalent for earth scientists)
:: Honorary doctor of science, University of Rhode Island
:: Honorary doctor of laws, Dalhousie
:: John Fleming Medal, American lnstltute of Qeonomy and Natural Resources
* 1961 Cullum Geographical Medal, American Geographical Society
:: Joseph Prlestley Award, Dickinson College
* 1962 Medal of Honor, Rice University
* 1963 Honorary doctor of science, University of Durham
:: John J. Carty Medal, National Academy of Sciences
* 1964 Foreign Member, Geological Society of London
:: Gold Medal, Royal Astronomical Society (London)
* 1965 Vega Medal, Swedish Society for Anthropology and Geography
* 1966 Corresponding Member (New York), Academia Nacional de
:: Cienclas Exactas, Fisicas y Naturales (Buenos Aires)
* 1967 Third David Rivett Memorial Lecturer (CSIRO, Australia)
:: Honorary Fellow, Indian Qeophysical Union
* 1968 Sidney Powers Memorial Medal, American Asscclation of
:::Petroleum Geologists
:: Honorary Member, American Association of Petrdeum Geologisb
:: Honorary doctor of science, University of Delaware
* 1969 Honorary doctor of science, Long Island University
:: Sesquicentennial Medal, St. Louis University
:: Wollaston Medal, Geological Society of London
:: Honorary Member, So&dad Colombiana de Geologia
:: Honorary doctor of science, U National de Colombla
* 1970 Honorary Member, Royal Society of New Zealand
* 1971 Honorary doctor of science, Centre College of Kentucky
*1972 Foreign Member, Royal Society (London)
:: Alumni Gold Medal, Rice University
* 1973 National Medal of Science
:: Robert Earl McConnell Award, American Institute of Mining,
::: Metallurgical, and Petroleum Engineers
:: Associate, Royal Astronomical Society (London)
:: Honorary Member, Canadian Socii of Petroleum Geologists
:: First Sproule Lecturer, University of Alberta
:: Member, Houston Philosophical Society
* 1974 Waiter H. Bucher Medal, American Geophysical Union
::Distinguished Achievement Award, Offshore Technobgy Conference
* 1976 Maurice Ewing Medal is created, jointly awarded by the
American Geophysical Union and the US Navy
* 1977 Maurice Ewing Medal is created as SEGs ’ highest award
* 1997 Maurice Ewing Earth and Planetary Sciences Fund is
established by the National Academy of Sciences
* 1999 The Maurice Ewing a 299 ft research vessel owned by the
Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory, is launched
=== Former Students ===
Most if not all of his 200-plus
graduate students achieved a measure of success well above the
average. And what higher a professor’s glory than to count among
his ahmmi the likes of Albert Crary, Milton Dobrin, William
DOM, Jim Dorman, Charles Drake, Gordon Hamilton, Jim Hayes,
Bruce Heezen, John Bracken Hersey, Sam Katz, Marcus Lang-
seth, Gary Latham, Bernie Luskin, Maurice Major, Edward
Miller, Charles Officer, Jack Oliver, Frank Press, H.M. Ruther-
ford, Nelson Steenland, Ivan Tolstoy, Allyn Vine, Joe Worxel,
and Paul Wuenschel. Dot was proud of their individual
achievements, but his dreams couldn’t be contained in the halls of
=== Links ===
[http://library.seg.org/doi/pdf/10.1190/1.1436806 - Biography of Maurice Ewing]

Latest revision as of 08:35, 15 September 2020

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