United States Environmental Protection Agency
The “EPA” or “Environmental Protection Agency” was created in 1970 by Nixon to protect human health and the environment. The EPA wrote and instilled laws in the United States to highlight the growing concerns of climate change in our environment. The current administrator of the United States EPA is Gina McCarthy. Although the headquarter occupy one office in Washington D.C., The EPA has ten regional offices that govern different units that consist of several or so states. The EPA is concerned about the quality of air, land, water, and life of all living organisms. It enacts laws and promotes sustainable green living to counteract the damage of climate change and to preserve life and the environment that surrounds it.
In the 1960’s, attention toward the growing concerns of environmental pollution were being drawn to the public. The public became aware of the harm pesticides and other pollutants were causing to the environment and their health through many publications at the time, for example Rachel Carson’s novel Silent Spring. Activists began to arise striving for a clean and sustainable future for the country.
To start of the 1970’s, president Richard Nixon signed the National Environmental Policy Act. The NEPA had three main objectives and those were to: gather intelligence on ecosystems and important natural resources, to halt and reverse the damage caused to the environment as well as public health, and promote a mutually beneficial and productive environment for man and nature. The 22nd of April in 1970 marked the first earth day, which consisted of around 20 million Americans spending the day outside celebrating environmental reform.
On December 2, 1970, president Richard Nixon signed an executive order that thereby established the Environmental Protection Agency which is led by a presidentially appointed administrator. It was decided that an independent agency was necessary in order to avoid bias other bodies of government may have in decision making. The EPA was formed from multiple programs from different departments. The department of Health, Education, and Welfare transferred some parts of the Bureau of Radiological Health, the bureaus of Water Hygiene, as well as the National Air Pollution Control Administration. The EPA also gained control of regulating the tolerance levels of pesticides from the Food and Drug Administration. Some functions of the Department of the Interior were delegated to the EPA such as: the Federal Water Quality Administration and some of its research responsibilities towards pesticides. The EPA took control of setting radiation standards and criteria from the Atomic Energy Commission and the Federal Radiation Council. The Department of Agriculture handed over pesticide registration to the EPA.
There are many offices that correspond to different regions.
- Office of the Administrator (OA)
- Office of Administration and Resources Management (OARM)
- Office of Air and Radiation (OAR)
- Office of Chemical Safety and Pollution Prevention (OCSPP)
- Office of the Chief Financial Officer (OCFO)
- Office of Enforcement and Compliance Assurance (OECA)
- Office of Environmental Information (OEI)
- Office of General Counsel (OGC)
- Office of Inspector General (OIG)
- Office of International and Tribal Affairs (OITA)
- Office of Research and Development (ORD)
- Office of Land and Emergency Management (OLEM)
- Office of Water (OW)
The EPA separated the US into ten different regions, each region consisting of several or so states. These regions are as followed:
- UNIT 1: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Vermont
- UNIT 2: New Jersey, New York, Puerto Rico, the U.S. Virgin Islands and eight tribal nations
- UNIT 3: Delaware, District of Columbia, Maryland, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and West Virginia
- UNIT 4: Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee and 6 Tribes
- UNIT 5: Illinois, Indiana,Michigan, Minnesota,Ohio, Wisconsin and 35 Tribes
- UNIT 6: Arkansas, Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Texas and 66 Tribal Nations
- UNIT 7: Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, Nebraska and Nine Tribal Nations
- UNIT 8: Colorado, Montana, North Dakota , South Dakota, Utah, Wyoming and 27 Tribal Nations
- UNIT 9: Arizona, California, Hawaii, Nevada, Pacific Island and 148 Tribes
- UNIT 10: Alaska, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington
Each region is responsible for the actions of in enforcing regulations and acts set in place by the EPA for the locations it contains.
Other closely related articles in this wiki include:
Relevant online sources to this wiki article include:
- The home page of Penn State Brandywine, the home of the EARTH 100 wiki article writers!
- Encyclopedia of Earth - one of the sites I want you to explore to look for supporting articles.
- You should also search the websites for NASA, NOAA, USGS, EPA, and the National Geographic Education Encyclopedia.
- Please DO NOT list the long URLs here! Let the user hover over text to get to a website (such as the examples provided above).