Difference between revisions of "The phase-shift-plus-correction method"

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Figure 7.3-19 shows selected [[time slices]] from the results of [[migration]] using the three different [[migration algorithms]] — the implicit one-pass on the left, the explicit McClellan transform in the middle, the explicit phase-shift-plus-correction on the right. Note the wobbly behavior of the contours on the [[time slices]] from the implicit one-pass scheme — this is related to the azimuthal asymmetry of its impulse response (Figure 7.3-12). The differences are exhibited more clearly on the enlarged view in Figure 7.3-20. The two explicit schemes — the McClellan transform and the phase-shift-plus-correction, produce comparable images.
 
Figure 7.3-19 shows selected [[time slices]] from the results of [[migration]] using the three different [[migration algorithms]] — the implicit one-pass on the left, the explicit McClellan transform in the middle, the explicit phase-shift-plus-correction on the right. Note the wobbly behavior of the contours on the [[time slices]] from the implicit one-pass scheme — this is related to the azimuthal asymmetry of its impulse response (Figure 7.3-12). The differences are exhibited more clearly on the enlarged view in Figure 7.3-20. The two explicit schemes — the McClellan transform and the phase-shift-plus-correction, produce comparable images.
  
<gallery>file:ch07_fig3-11.png|{{figure number|7.3-11}} Desired impulse response of a [[3-D migration]] operator is a hollow hemisphere. See Figure 7.3-3 for locations of the line numbers. Line 51 is the center line. Compare with Figures 7.3-12, 7.3-13 and 7.3-14.
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file:ch07_fig3-12.png|{{figure number|7.3-12}} An 80-degree split [[3-D migration]] operator impulse response. See Figure 4.4-1 for the 2-D equivalent response. Line 51 is the center line, which also exhibits the 2-D impulse response except for the amplitudes. Compare with Figures 7.3-11, 7.3-13, and 7.3-14.
 
file:ch07_fig3-12.png|{{figure number|7.3-12}} An 80-degree split [[3-D migration]] operator impulse response. See Figure 4.4-1 for the 2-D equivalent response. Line 51 is the center line, which also exhibits the 2-D impulse response except for the amplitudes. Compare with Figures 7.3-11, 7.3-13, and 7.3-14.
file:ch07_fig3-13.png|{{figure number|7.3-13}} Impulse response of a [[3-D migration]] operator based on a 39-point explicit 1-D operator transformed into a 2-D operator using the 3 × 3 McClellan filter template in Table G-1. Compare with Figures 7.3-11, 7.3-12, and 7.3-14.
 
file:ch07_fig3-14.png|{{figure number|7.3-14}} Impulse response of a [[3-D migration]] operator based on a 39-point explicit 1-D operator transformed into a 2-D operator using the 5 × 5 McClellan filter template in Table G-2. Compare with Figures 7.3-11, 7.3-12, and 7.3-13.
 
file:ch07_fig3-15.png|{{figure number|7.3-15}} [[3-D migration]] of the 3-D zero-offset wavefield associated with three point scatterers buried in a horizontally layered velocity-depth model (Figure 5.1-17). Top sections are the selected cross-sections of the wavefield as in Figure 7.3-4a, and the bottom sections are the cross-sections of the output from 3-D depth [[migration]] using an explicit scheme with the McClellan transform.
 
file:ch07_fig3-16.png|{{figure number|7.3-16}} [[Time slices]] from the [[3-D migration]] test of Figure 7.3-15. Shown on top are the [[time slices]] from the input 3-D zero-offset wavefield and bottom are the depth slices from 3-D poststack [[migration]] coincident with the depths of the point scatterers in the horizontally layered earth model of Figure 5.1-17.
 
 
file:ch07_fig3-17a.png|{{figure number|7.3-17}} Part 1: Selected crosslines from the volumes of migrated data using three different 3-D poststack [[migration algorithms]] — the implicit one-pass on top, the explicit McClellan transform in the middle, the explicit phase-shift-plus-correction at the bottom. The base map is shown in Figure 7.2-1, and the crosslines of the unmigrated CMP-stacked volume of data are shown in Figure 7.2-17. The annotation on top of the sections refer to the inline numbers.
 
file:ch07_fig3-17a.png|{{figure number|7.3-17}} Part 1: Selected crosslines from the volumes of migrated data using three different 3-D poststack [[migration algorithms]] — the implicit one-pass on top, the explicit McClellan transform in the middle, the explicit phase-shift-plus-correction at the bottom. The base map is shown in Figure 7.2-1, and the crosslines of the unmigrated CMP-stacked volume of data are shown in Figure 7.2-17. The annotation on top of the sections refer to the inline numbers.
 
file:ch07_fig3-17b.png|{{figure number|7.3-17}} Part 2: Selected crosslines from the volumes of migrated data using three different 3-D poststack [[migration algorithms]] — the implicit one-pass on top, the explicit McClellan transform in the middle, the explicit phase-shift-plus-correction at the bottom. The base map is shown in Figure 7.2-1, and the crosslines of the unmigrated CMP-stacked volume of data are shown in Figure 7.2-17. The annotation on top of the sections refer to the inline numbers.
 
file:ch07_fig3-17b.png|{{figure number|7.3-17}} Part 2: Selected crosslines from the volumes of migrated data using three different 3-D poststack [[migration algorithms]] — the implicit one-pass on top, the explicit McClellan transform in the middle, the explicit phase-shift-plus-correction at the bottom. The base map is shown in Figure 7.2-1, and the crosslines of the unmigrated CMP-stacked volume of data are shown in Figure 7.2-17. The annotation on top of the sections refer to the inline numbers.
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file:ch07_fig3-19c.png|{{figure number|7.3-19}} Part 3: Selected [[time slices]] from the volume of migrated data using three different 3-D poststack [[migration algorithms]] — (a) the implicit one-pass, (b) the explicit McClellan transform, and (c) the explicit phase-shift-plus-correction. The base map is shown in Figure 7.2-1. Selected crosslines are shown in Figure 7.3-17 and inlines are shown in Figure 7.3-18.
 
file:ch07_fig3-19c.png|{{figure number|7.3-19}} Part 3: Selected [[time slices]] from the volume of migrated data using three different 3-D poststack [[migration algorithms]] — (a) the implicit one-pass, (b) the explicit McClellan transform, and (c) the explicit phase-shift-plus-correction. The base map is shown in Figure 7.2-1. Selected crosslines are shown in Figure 7.3-17 and inlines are shown in Figure 7.3-18.
 
file:ch07_fig3-20.png|{{figure number|7.3-20}} A [[time slices|time slice]] from the volume of migrated data using three different 3-D poststack [[migration algorithms]] — (a) the implicit one-pass, (b) the explicit McClellan transform, and (c) the explicit phase-shift-plus-correction. The base map is shown in Figure 7.2-1. Selected crosslines are shown in Figure 7.3-17 and inlines are shown in Figure 7.3-18.
 
file:ch07_fig3-20.png|{{figure number|7.3-20}} A [[time slices|time slice]] from the volume of migrated data using three different 3-D poststack [[migration algorithms]] — (a) the implicit one-pass, (b) the explicit McClellan transform, and (c) the explicit phase-shift-plus-correction. The base map is shown in Figure 7.2-1. Selected crosslines are shown in Figure 7.3-17 and inlines are shown in Figure 7.3-18.
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file:ch07_fig2-1.png|{{figure number|7.2-1}} Base map of a land 3-D survey. East is to the right. Shot locations follow the irregular patterns and receiver locations follow the more-or-less regular lines in the east-west direction. Sketch on the bottom right is the recording geometry. See text for details.
 
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Revision as of 11:18, 1 October 2014

Seismic Data Analysis
Seismic-data-analysis.jpg
Series Investigations in Geophysics
Author Öz Yilmaz
DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.1190/1.9781560801580
ISBN ISBN 978-1-56080-094-1
Store SEG Online Store


The phase-shift method (Section G.3) is designed to accommodate vertically varying velocity field for migration, only. Nevertheless, it can be extended to accommodate lateral velocity variations [1] [2]. Consider a spatially varying 3-D migration velocity field v(x, y, z) and a laterally averaged, but vertically varying velocity function . The basic idea is to first extrapolate in depth with the phase-shift extrapolator (equation G-22) using the vertically varying velocity function . This is followed by the application of a convolutional operator as in the explicit schemes (Section G.2) to the extrapolated wavefield at the same depth. This second operation is fundamentally a residual extrapolation to account for the difference between the laterally varying velocity field v(x, y, z) and the vertically varying velocity function . The migration algorithm that incorporates such a correction term into the phase-shift algorithm has been known as phase-shift-plus-correction (PSPC) method. Such a splitting of wave extrapolation within one depth step may appear to be computationally awkward. Nevertheless, numerically efficient schemes have been devised to apply the convolutional operator in the residual extrapolation step [1]. Depending on the degree of lateral velocity variations, the PSPC method can be used either as a time or depth migration algorithm.

Figure 7.3-17 shows selected crosslines from the 3-D migrated volumes of data associated with the 3-D survey of Figure 7.2-1 using three different migration algorithms — the implicit one-pass on top, the explicit McClellan transform in the middle, the PSPC at the bottom. Note that both of the explicit schemes based on the McClellan transform and the PSPC methods have produced comparable and better images of the subsurface in the vicinity of the overthrust between inline locations 200 and 300. The same region of the subsurface appears to be undermigrated by the implicit one-pass scheme. Incorrect positioning by the implicit one-pass scheme also is pronounced in the inline sections shown in Figure 7.3-18. Note, for instance, poor reflector continuity between 1.5-2 s and crossline locations 200 and 400 — events have not been moved completely into this section from the neighboring sections. Moreover, note the wobbly character of these events — this is caused by the circularly asymmetric impulse response of the implicit one-pass operator (Figure 7.3-12). Notice also the generally noisy character of the results from the implicit one-pass scheme — this may be attributed to the dispersive noise produced by the algorithm. Specifically, it treats evanescent energy as if it is propagating energy and generates a noisy impulse response at steep dips (Figure 7.3-12).

Figure 7.3-19 shows selected time slices from the results of migration using the three different migration algorithms — the implicit one-pass on the left, the explicit McClellan transform in the middle, the explicit phase-shift-plus-correction on the right. Note the wobbly behavior of the contours on the time slices from the implicit one-pass scheme — this is related to the azimuthal asymmetry of its impulse response (Figure 7.3-12). The differences are exhibited more clearly on the enlarged view in Figure 7.3-20. The two explicit schemes — the McClellan transform and the phase-shift-plus-correction, produce comparable images.

Study the crosslines (Figure 7.3-17), the inlines (Figure 7.3-18), and the time slices in Figure 7.3-19, and note the differences in imaging by the implicit and explicit schemes. It is almost certain that in the future, explicit schemes, because of their ease of design and implementation, will become standard. Increased computer power will further encourage use of the explicit schemes.

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 Kosloff and Kessler, 1987, Kosloff, D. and Kessler, D., 1987, Accurate depth migration by a generalized phase-shift method: Geophysics, 52, 1074–1084.
  2. Pai, 1988, Pai, D. M., 1988, Generalized f − k (frequency-wavenumber) migration in arbitrarily varying media: Geophysics, 53, 1547–1555.

See also

External links

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