Difference between revisions of "Surface water"

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This is a dummy article to help you get started with creating pages in the wiki. Click ''Edit'' at the top and copy the text to use in your article. See [[Help:Creating articles|creating articles]] for more information.  
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Surface-water sources include rivers, lakes, streams, and oceans. According to the U.S. Geological Survey, any surface water that is less than 1,000 milligrams per liter (mg/L) of dissolved solids is considered freshwater whereas the rest of it is salt water.<ref>[http://water.usgs.gov/watuse/wusw.html],U.S. Geological Survey. (2016, May 2). USGS: Surface-water use in the United States. USGS (United States Geological Survey). Retrieved September 8, 2016.</ref>
  
The first paragraph is usually a short dictionary-style definition of the subject matter. The gives the reader a quick answer, which may be all they required, and reassures them that they have come to the right page.  
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Water Use
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Access of Water on Earth
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70 percent of Earth is covered by water. Less than 3 percent of that water is freshwater, and most of that is actually unavailable for drinking or for agriculture. Almost two thirds of this freshwater is contained in glaciers; lakes and rivers hold 100,000 km³ globally, which gives less than 1 percent of water for environmental use4.
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Human Water Use
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According to the USGS (United States Geological Survey), in 2005, 77 percent of freshwater came from surface-water resources for the United States, whereas the rest of the 23 percent came from groundwater. The United States withdrew a total of 328 billion gallons of water, on average, for everyday use, during that same year5. The watershed evaluates surface water resources. According to the 2010 surface water- use data, the United States used up to 275 billion gallons of water daily, on average, which is actually 13 percent less than the 2005 water-use6.
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Pollution in Water
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Meteorological Effects of Pollution
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The AGI argues that the surface waters and their ecosystems are domain to many plants and animal species. Surface waters are designed to provide most of the off-stream water use in the United States. As a response to human activity and climate, the stream-flow will vary. Streams can abstractly indicate what is happening to our watershed. Furthermore, the characteristics of the watershed and climate effects water flow. For example, storms can invisibly create a negative impact on water quality, with water-runoffs, full of pollutants that flow into streams7.
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Socioeconomic Effects of Pollution
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According to the National Geographic Society, water is a natural resource that we, as humans, need to live. In fact, most of our body is water. Having clean water is not a given reality everywhere on this planet. In other words, many people die every day from water related diseases, which are most likely from drinking filthy water. The National Geographic Society also says that politics, economics and climate often impact issues of access to safe water. For example, the National Geographic Society says that some places may not even have groundwater pumps, while other places may be losing the natural resources that other people need, from previous droughts8.
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According to Adesuyi and his colleagues, the major sources of surface water pollution are mainly the factorial and industrial practices of people. Chemicals such as lead, nitrogen, and sulfate are pollutants in most water bodies. Pollution in rivers in Nigeria is increasing due to the increase of the population9.
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Aquatic Effects of Pollution
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According to the James MacDonald, the changes in the climate have caused the deprivation in oxygen in our oceans. Surface waters are, in some aspect, connected to the atmosphere and full of oxygen. Surface waters flow right into the ocean with oxygen, but then, the ocean deprives of oxygen as the water becomes deeper. However, the oxygen and warm water do not mix very well because as the temperature increases, the oxygen would most likely flow back into the atmosphere10.
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According to NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration), the Chesapeake Bay, which is home to many species, such as crabs, and fish, has been crippled due to pollution in the local community. NASA also argues that according to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the Chesapeake Bay has been marked as one of the filthiest bays in the nation. The Chesapeake Bay has carried harmful pollutants, such as sentiments from erosion, excessive nutrients and other contaminants from its watershed. The Chesapeake Bay runoff feeds algae blooms that take over the oxygen in the water, which is what water species rely on11.
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Drinkable Water
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Most scientists in major cities have to use chemicals to make water drinkable. According to Philadelphia Water Department-Water Commissioner and her scientists, the water that we drink comes from rivers. In fact, the department scientists say that our drinking water obtains chemicals to make the water drinkable instead of contaminated12.
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SWOT Team
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According to NASA, the Surface Water Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission brings two communities together to focus on understanding the ocean and its surface waters on Earth. Both oceanographers and hydrologists from both sides of the Earth, (One from the United States and the other one from France), have come together to work on this new establishment to test the Earths water and supervise how bodies of water change overtime. SWOT is a satellite mission which will analyze the water bodies on Earth13.
  
== First heading ==
 
The main headings in the article are ''second'' level headings, defined with two equals signs in the wikitext. You never need to use the top-level heading style, defined with one equals sign, as it is reserved for article titles. As with a scientific article, you have plenty of freedom about how to organize your content, but the reader may have some expectations about the order and style that you may want to take into account. <ref>Mooney et al., 2013. [http://www.pnas.org/content/110/Supplement_1/3665.full Evolution of natural and social science interactions in global change research programs]. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, v. 110, p. 3665-3672.</ref>.
 
  
Start with a brief bit of background about the subject. Relate it to other topics, using plenty of links. Create links with a pair of square brackets around key technical words and phrases.
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== Surface-Water ==
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=== Inside Surface-Water ===
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According to the AGI (American Geoscience Institute), surface water and groundwater systems are alike in several different ways in most landscapes: (1) the inflow of the groundwater gives stream water through their streambed, (2) the outflow of the groundwater takes away the stream water through the streambed, and or (3) they both depend on the location of the stream. Groundwater contributes to keeps streams flowing with water through the precipitation, such as rain, or snow. Water movement between groundwater and surface water systems can mix up the quality of water. <ref>[http://www.americangeosciences.org/critical-issues/faq/how-do-groundwater-and-surface-water-interact], American Geosciences Institute. (2016). How do groundwater and surface water interact? Retrieved September 22, 2016.</ref>
  
=== Subheading ===
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=== Water Cycle ===
In longer articles, it may make sense to have another level of headings. There are not many occasions when you will need to use '''H4''' headings (four '''=''' signs), so don't go there unless it's unavoidable. Never use more than four.<ref>Matt Hall, 2013, pers. comm. Sorry, this is the best reference I can find.</ref>
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According to the USGS, the water used for everyday resources have always been a part of the water cycle. The USGS has teamed up to illustrate a water cycle diagram. First, the sun is the primary source to make the water cycle work. The sun evaporates water from oceans, lakes, rivers and streams into the atmosphere, which becomes water vapor. Then, water vapor invisibly flows up into the sky and turns into clouds. After a while, the clouds will drop precipitation onto the earth. The precipitation will then fall onto the ground and flow downhill as runoffs, providing even more water for lakes, streams, rivers, and oceans. The precipitation may also fall onto the ground and soak into the soil. Finally, the sun repeats the water cycle with condensation and evaporation. <ref>[http://water.usgs.gov/edu/watercycle-kids.html], Perlman, H., & Gonthier, G. (2016, June 20). The water cycle for schools. USGS (United States Geological Survey). Retrieved September 15, 2016.</ref>
  
 
== Second heading ==
 
== Second heading ==

Revision as of 09:33, 27 October 2016

Surface-water sources include rivers, lakes, streams, and oceans. According to the U.S. Geological Survey, any surface water that is less than 1,000 milligrams per liter (mg/L) of dissolved solids is considered freshwater whereas the rest of it is salt water.[1]

Water Use Access of Water on Earth 70 percent of Earth is covered by water. Less than 3 percent of that water is freshwater, and most of that is actually unavailable for drinking or for agriculture. Almost two thirds of this freshwater is contained in glaciers; lakes and rivers hold 100,000 km³ globally, which gives less than 1 percent of water for environmental use4. Human Water Use According to the USGS (United States Geological Survey), in 2005, 77 percent of freshwater came from surface-water resources for the United States, whereas the rest of the 23 percent came from groundwater. The United States withdrew a total of 328 billion gallons of water, on average, for everyday use, during that same year5. The watershed evaluates surface water resources. According to the 2010 surface water- use data, the United States used up to 275 billion gallons of water daily, on average, which is actually 13 percent less than the 2005 water-use6. Pollution in Water Meteorological Effects of Pollution The AGI argues that the surface waters and their ecosystems are domain to many plants and animal species. Surface waters are designed to provide most of the off-stream water use in the United States. As a response to human activity and climate, the stream-flow will vary. Streams can abstractly indicate what is happening to our watershed. Furthermore, the characteristics of the watershed and climate effects water flow. For example, storms can invisibly create a negative impact on water quality, with water-runoffs, full of pollutants that flow into streams7. Socioeconomic Effects of Pollution According to the National Geographic Society, water is a natural resource that we, as humans, need to live. In fact, most of our body is water. Having clean water is not a given reality everywhere on this planet. In other words, many people die every day from water related diseases, which are most likely from drinking filthy water. The National Geographic Society also says that politics, economics and climate often impact issues of access to safe water. For example, the National Geographic Society says that some places may not even have groundwater pumps, while other places may be losing the natural resources that other people need, from previous droughts8. According to Adesuyi and his colleagues, the major sources of surface water pollution are mainly the factorial and industrial practices of people. Chemicals such as lead, nitrogen, and sulfate are pollutants in most water bodies. Pollution in rivers in Nigeria is increasing due to the increase of the population9. Aquatic Effects of Pollution According to the James MacDonald, the changes in the climate have caused the deprivation in oxygen in our oceans. Surface waters are, in some aspect, connected to the atmosphere and full of oxygen. Surface waters flow right into the ocean with oxygen, but then, the ocean deprives of oxygen as the water becomes deeper. However, the oxygen and warm water do not mix very well because as the temperature increases, the oxygen would most likely flow back into the atmosphere10. According to NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration), the Chesapeake Bay, which is home to many species, such as crabs, and fish, has been crippled due to pollution in the local community. NASA also argues that according to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the Chesapeake Bay has been marked as one of the filthiest bays in the nation. The Chesapeake Bay has carried harmful pollutants, such as sentiments from erosion, excessive nutrients and other contaminants from its watershed. The Chesapeake Bay runoff feeds algae blooms that take over the oxygen in the water, which is what water species rely on11. Drinkable Water Most scientists in major cities have to use chemicals to make water drinkable. According to Philadelphia Water Department-Water Commissioner and her scientists, the water that we drink comes from rivers. In fact, the department scientists say that our drinking water obtains chemicals to make the water drinkable instead of contaminated12. SWOT Team According to NASA, the Surface Water Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission brings two communities together to focus on understanding the ocean and its surface waters on Earth. Both oceanographers and hydrologists from both sides of the Earth, (One from the United States and the other one from France), have come together to work on this new establishment to test the Earths water and supervise how bodies of water change overtime. SWOT is a satellite mission which will analyze the water bodies on Earth13.


Surface-Water

Inside Surface-Water

According to the AGI (American Geoscience Institute), surface water and groundwater systems are alike in several different ways in most landscapes: (1) the inflow of the groundwater gives stream water through their streambed, (2) the outflow of the groundwater takes away the stream water through the streambed, and or (3) they both depend on the location of the stream. Groundwater contributes to keeps streams flowing with water through the precipitation, such as rain, or snow. Water movement between groundwater and surface water systems can mix up the quality of water. [2]

Water Cycle

According to the USGS, the water used for everyday resources have always been a part of the water cycle. The USGS has teamed up to illustrate a water cycle diagram. First, the sun is the primary source to make the water cycle work. The sun evaporates water from oceans, lakes, rivers and streams into the atmosphere, which becomes water vapor. Then, water vapor invisibly flows up into the sky and turns into clouds. After a while, the clouds will drop precipitation onto the earth. The precipitation will then fall onto the ground and flow downhill as runoffs, providing even more water for lakes, streams, rivers, and oceans. The precipitation may also fall onto the ground and soak into the soil. Finally, the sun repeats the water cycle with condensation and evaporation. [3]

Second heading

This is my great caption

You can add as many sections as you think you need to 'spiral out' from the core of the topic. Use judgment to decide when to split out a separate article.

Subheading

In longer articles, it may make sense to have another level of headings. There are not many occasions when you will need to use H4 headings (four = signs), so don't go there unless it's unavoidable. Never use more than four.[4]

See also

Other closely related articles in this wiki include:

References

  1. [1],U.S. Geological Survey. (2016, May 2). USGS: Surface-water use in the United States. USGS (United States Geological Survey). Retrieved September 8, 2016.
  2. [2], American Geosciences Institute. (2016). How do groundwater and surface water interact? Retrieved September 22, 2016.
  3. [3], Perlman, H., & Gonthier, G. (2016, June 20). The water cycle for schools. USGS (United States Geological Survey). Retrieved September 15, 2016.
  4. Matt Hall, 2013, pers. comm. Sorry, this is the best reference I can find.


External links

Relevant online sources to this wiki article include: