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  • ...l∂ nat’ ik) The locus for a given traveltime of wave energy reflected or refracted at a surface. Wavefronts are aplanatic surfaces for reflection
    908 bytes (126 words) - 20:55, 4 March 2018
  • ...cuum, 2.997 925&#x00D7;10<sup>8</sup>&#x0020;m/s. <b>3</b>. A seismic wave reflected at the Earth&#x2019;s mantle-core boundary.
    320 bytes (48 words) - 14:54, 29 January 2017
  • {{#category_index:C|channel wave}} ...Special:MyLanguage/Dictionary:Fig_C-2|C-2]]. A channel is also called a <b>wave guide</b> and channel waves are also called <b>guided waves</b> and <b>norm
    2 KB (312 words) - 10:31, 11 July 2017
  • {{#category_index:C|converted wave}} ...y as a [[Dictionary:P-wave|P-wave]] and partly as an [[Dictionary:S-wave|S-wave]], being converted from one to the other upon reflection or refraction at o
    4 KB (533 words) - 11:20, 19 September 2020
  • This model is a consequence of the concept that each reflected wave causes its own effect at each geophone (or hydrophone) independent of what
    863 bytes (134 words) - 12:52, 4 December 2017
  • ...eflector mainly effective in generating a reflection since, for a harmonic wave, the effects of successive zones generally cancel each other. A nomogram fo
    1 KB (207 words) - 18:05, 14 November 2017
  • ...2</b>. Seismic wave energy falling on a reflector and thus available to be reflected. It depends on source-receiver configuration and velocity distribution, esp
    541 bytes (70 words) - 23:22, 18 January 2017
  • ...the first arrival of the downgoing wave is time-coincident with an upgoing wave.&#x2019;&#x2019;
    609 bytes (91 words) - 12:16, 7 March 2017
  • ...e picked with reasonable certainty. Depends on the energy of the reflected wave, the presence of noise, and the processing to which the data are subjected
    550 bytes (77 words) - 21:53, 23 November 2017
  • {{#category_index:R|reflected refraction}} <b>1</b>. Head-wave energy that has been reflected or diffracted back from a discontinuity in a refractor, such as a fault. Se
    1 KB (201 words) - 21:54, 18 January 2020
  • The energy or wave from a seismic source that has been reflected (returned) from an acoustic-impedance contrast (<b>reflector</b>) or series
    705 bytes (93 words) - 13:52, 27 February 2018
  • ...k and forth over only a small portion of the section so that the resulting wave blends with the primary pulse, changing its waveshape and adding a tail. Se
    435 bytes (64 words) - 18:47, 27 April 2017
  • {{#category_index:S|sky wave}} ...io) waves reflected from ionized layers in the ionosphere. Involved in sky-wave interference and in making radio waves receivable beyond the line-of-sight
    417 bytes (47 words) - 16:08, 11 April 2019
  • {{#category_index:S|sky-wave interference}} ...unset, so sky-wave interference is especially variable at these times. Sky-wave interference degrades the accuracy and range of radio-positioning systems.
    484 bytes (63 words) - 23:00, 14 September 2018
  • ...es the channel. (<b>e</b>) The high-frequency portion of (d), the <b>water wave</b>; its arrival is used in refraction work to determine the range. (From C
    1 KB (209 words) - 21:45, 19 June 2017
  • ...f layers 1, 2, and ''V''<sub>''S''1</sub>, ''V''<sub>''S''2</sub> is the S-wave velocity in layers 1, 2. Note the minus sign (the opposite sign convention ...in reflectivity, depending on the polarization (SH or SV) of the incident wave; the formula (for isotropic media) are given in Aki and Richards. But, sinc
    2 KB (249 words) - 00:02, 20 September 2020
  • {{#category_index:S|standing wave}} ...length intervals. Continuous-wave radio-navigation systems set up standing-wave patterns.
    582 bytes (74 words) - 05:30, 1 November 2017
  • {{#category_index:T|turning wave}} ...ath (for example, by an overhanging salt flank), it is called a <b>turning-wave reflection</b> (see Figure [[Special:MyLanguage/Dictionary:Fig_D-19|D-19]])
    621 bytes (97 words) - 23:31, 14 April 2019
  • A vibroseis field record consists of the superposition of many long reflected wavetrains and is generally uninterpretable because of the extensive overla The original Vibroseis vibrated vertically; it is sometimes be called a "P-wave" vibrator because most of the energy radiated near-vertically travels as P-
    2 KB (361 words) - 23:52, 19 September 2020
  • ...terface.png|thumb|Diagram showing the mode conversions that occur when a P-wave reflects off an interface at non-normal incidence]] ...hat describe the partitioning of [[Special:MyLanguage/seismic wave|seismic wave]] energy at an interface, typically a boundary between two different layers
    9 KB (1,422 words) - 20:35, 19 September 2020
  • ...es the channel. (<b>e</b>) The high-frequency portion of (d), the <b>water wave</b>; its arrival is used in refraction work to determine the range. (From C
    849 bytes (136 words) - 14:40, 2 March 2018
  • ...'' after the onset of the wave struck the tip of the barrier. Shown is the reflected wavefront, the wavefront that missed the reflector, and diffractions from t
    408 bytes (64 words) - 16:29, 20 December 2011
  • ...aves illustrating wave nomenclature. See also ''[[Dictionary:wave_notation|wave notation]]''.
    273 bytes (40 words) - 16:36, 20 December 2011
  • ...) Energy fractions for reflected P-waves as a function of density ratio; P-wave velocity contrast 1.5, Poisson's ratio 0.25. (From Tooley et al., 1965.)
    864 bytes (126 words) - 11:13, 2 March 2020
  • The exact solution for [[C-wave]] reflectivity (for the case of a plane P-wave incident upon an planar boundary between isotropic media) is given by Aki a a) makes the reflected amplitude ''zero'' at normal incidence. <br>
    3 KB (387 words) - 15:46, 20 September 2020
  • ...journal|last1=Robinson|first1=Enders A.|title=Transmitted deconvolution of reflected signals|journal=The Leading Edge|volume=16|issue=5|year=1997|pages=503–50 ...ite journal|last1=Robinson|first1=Enders|last2=Clark|first2=Dean|title=The wave equation|journal=The Leading Edge|volume=6|issue=7|year=1987|pages=14–17|
    11 KB (1,522 words) - 15:21, 17 October 2016
  • ...for his work in many areas of geophysics including in-seam seismic channel wave studies in coal. :1984 Renaming of the Rayleigh-channel wave into [[Krey-wave]]
    12 KB (1,798 words) - 14:02, 28 December 2016
  • ...alog magnetic recording and its associated analog processing. This work is reflected in some of his early papers in EAGE's journal, Geophysical Prospecting, and ...late 1950s Nigel addressed the topic of the earth's effects on the seismic wave form. One of his papers, "Why all this interest in the shape of the pulse?"
    16 KB (2,345 words) - 11:23, 31 August 2020
  • ...earth and of a receiver and recorder that subsequently recorded the energy reflected, refracted, and scattered from within the subsurface. The invention was pro ...record facts that contradicted the fundamental results of classic elastic wave theory. When an elastics pulse is applied to the earth, the result at a dis
    4 KB (600 words) - 15:20, 17 October 2016
  • ...ated with Dix on were related to free surface reflections and the Rayleigh wave. In 1946 Ethel Ward McLemore left the United Geophysical Company to work wi ...ime of increasing specialization, Ethel has remained a generalist. This is reflected in her profusion of publications which have included such diverse topics as
    14 KB (2,031 words) - 10:00, 5 November 2020
  • interpretation, as reflected by 36 the equivalence of wave-equation, frequency-domain solutions
    7 KB (1,012 words) - 11:02, 18 October 2016
  • contributions are reflected in more than 100 articles in SEG publications, 16 books and 12 ...y Director of the Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radio Wave Propagation of the Russian Academy
    6 KB (965 words) - 11:19, 18 October 2016
  • ...potential field interferometry, imaging internal multiples from VSP, shear-wave splitting, microearthquake data, time-lapse monitoring, virtual-source acqu ...ation of the Born approximation to perturbation theory for seismic surface-wave propagation, which paved the way for the use of sensitivity kernels for fin
    11 KB (1,718 words) - 17:29, 4 November 2016
  • in SEG publications, a widely cited PhD thesis on plane wave depth-migration, and has recently pioneering work in finite-difference wave propagation.
    5 KB (832 words) - 17:13, 5 October 2017
  • wave. Using the time-distance diagrams, the traveltime curves. he He recorded the arrival of the sound wave in air and calculated
    33 KB (5,439 words) - 12:07, 30 January 2019
  • SEG in honoring the [http://cwp.mines.edu/:Center for Wave Phenomena], [http://geophysics.mines.edu/:Department of Geophysics], [http: reflected by the SU project. SU is used by exploration geophysicists,
    6 KB (916 words) - 11:16, 10 November 2014
  • SEG in honoring the [http://cwp.mines.edu: Center for Wave Phenomena], [http://geophysics.mines.edu: Department of Geophysics], [http: reflected by the SU project. SU is used by exploration geophysicists,
    8 KB (1,136 words) - 03:08, 31 March 2022
  • Jack published many papers in the field of wave propagation and seismic imaging. He was co-founder of the [http://cwp.mines.edu: Center for Wave Phenomena] and co-founder (with [[Shuki Ronen]])
    10 KB (1,560 words) - 07:51, 11 April 2021
  • '''John W. Stockwell, Jr''' is a research associate with the Center for Wave Phenomena, Colorado School of Mines. He has been the principal investigator SEG in honoring the [http://cwp.mines.edu: Center for Wave Phenomena], [http://geophysics.mines.edu: Department of Geophysics], [http:
    13 KB (2,051 words) - 12:09, 18 October 2016
  • [[Center for Wave Phenomena]] (CWP). The principal scientific contribution to measure wave scattering and anisotropy in natural
    5 KB (772 words) - 14:29, 17 October 2016
  • :''Assumption 2''. The source generates a compressional plane wave that impinges on layer boundaries at normal incidence. Under such circumsta ...n coefficient is the ratio of the reflected wave amplitude to the incident wave amplitude. Moreover, from its definition (equation {{EquationNote|1a}}), th
    11 KB (1,590 words) - 08:01, 18 September 2014
  • ...nately to 1/''r''<sup>2</sup>, where ''r'' is the radius of the wavefront. Wave amplitude is proportional to the square root of energy density; it decays a ...ared (rms) velocity ([[normal moveout]]) of the primary reflections (those reflected only once) averaged over a survey area. Therefore, the gain function for ge
    9 KB (1,329 words) - 16:09, 28 August 2014
  • ...as ''I'' = ''ρv'', where ''ρ'' is density and ''v'' is the compressional-wave velocity within the layer. The instantaneous value of seismic impedance for For a vertically incident plane wave, the pressure amplitude reflection coefficient associated with an interface
    59 KB (9,331 words) - 17:26, 7 October 2014
  • ...e source explodes, the energy propagates at all angles (Figure 6.3-1). The reflected energy arrives at different receiver groups at different angles because of ...se and result in a plane wave that travels vertically downward. This plane wave reflects from an interface and is recorded by a receiver at the surface. (A
    8 KB (1,301 words) - 11:42, 26 September 2014
  • ...t al. (1982), Treitel, S., Gutowski, P. R., and Wagner, D. E., 1982, Plane-wave decomposition of seismograms: Geophysics, 47, 1375–1401.</ref> investigat ...6_figF-1.png|{{figure number|F-1}} (a) A shot gather containing the strong reflected and refracted multiples associated with hard water-bottom conditions. Here,
    14 KB (2,140 words) - 13:08, 26 September 2014
  • ...Clayton, R. and Engquist, B., 1980, Absorbing side boundary conditions for wave-equation [[migration]]: Geophysics, 45, 895–904.</ref>.
    6 KB (926 words) - 14:26, 23 September 2014
  • The seismic waveguide effect of a surface layer is well known. Wave propagation in a surface layer, in particular guided waves, can be describe ...-1.png|thumb|{{figure number|F-1}} (a) A shot gather containing the strong reflected and refracted multiples associated with hard water-bottom conditions. Here,
    70 KB (10,953 words) - 15:05, 9 October 2014
  • ...ly varying traveltime ''T''(''x, y, z'') ([[Diffraction and ray theory for wave propagation|Section H.2]]) ...f the form defined by equation ({{EquationNote|8-3}}) satisfies the scalar wave equation ({{EquationNote|8-1}}). Substitution of equation ({{EquationNote|8
    12 KB (1,916 words) - 08:04, 2 October 2014
  • ...ten do not represent the typical refracted arrivals associated with a head wave. Therefore, neither refraction traveltime tomography ([[Topics in moveout a ...face layers, the downgoing incident wave rapidly turns around before being reflected and is recorded by the receiver as the first arrival.
    6 KB (801 words) - 17:16, 9 October 2014
  • ...Moreover, the offset provides higher chances of converting P waves into S wave. This provides a chance for amplitude variation with offset and anisotropy # Primary P wave
    6 KB (900 words) - 15:37, 11 September 2017
  • ...c [[migration]] and seismic wavefield modeling algorithms are based on the wave equation. ...sult at depth ''z'' = 0. Both processes use wave equation as the basis for wave extrapolation.
    19 KB (2,911 words) - 18:02, 9 October 2014
  • Vertical resolution can be calculated from the length of the propagation wave and the layer thickness below 1/4 wavelength for resolving limits of beds. .../4. If the wavelength is larger than λ/4 from the zone where energy was reflected, then the resolution is lower.
    6 KB (916 words) - 08:56, 19 March 2018
  • ...al layer boundary into its reflected and refracted compressional-and shear-wave components, we want to use the CRP gathers from [[3-D prestack time migrati
    4 KB (547 words) - 17:59, 9 October 2014
  • ...[[Dictionary:S-wave|shear-wave]] energy are partly [[Dictionary:Reflection|reflected]] from and partly transmitted through each of these layer boundaries. ...change in the ratio of [[Dictionary:P-wave|''P''-wave]] velocity to ''S''-wave velocity, which in turn may imply a change in fluid [[Dictionary:Saturation
    4 KB (585 words) - 16:50, 6 October 2014
  • ...ement component, ''w'', which is only a function of ''z''. The equation of wave motion ([[Mathematical_foundation_of_elastic_wave_propagation#equation_L-28 ...ed with an isotropic solid. They are directly related to the compressional-wave velocity ''α'' by equation ([[Mathematical_foundation_of_elastic_wave_prop
    19 KB (2,801 words) - 16:57, 6 October 2014
  • ...at a synclinal interface focuses the energy associated with the reflecting wave, whereas an anticlinal interface defocuses it. ...curvature on angular dependence of reflected wave amplitudes. The incident wave is of compressional type. (a) A synclinal reflector (''x'' < 0), (b) an ant
    5 KB (762 words) - 17:00, 6 October 2014
  • ...nNote|14}}) can be solved for the reflected and refracted ''P''- and ''S''-wave amplitudes, ''A''<sub>1</sub>, ''B''<sub>1</sub>, ''A''<sub>2</sub>, and '' ...2</sub>)/2, average of the incidence and transmission angles for the ''P''-wave (Figure 11.0-2e).
    42 KB (6,342 words) - 11:08, 22 March 2019
  • ...variation with offset]], we are then able to make an estimate of the ''S''-wave reflectivity as an AVO attribute (equations {{EquationNote|37}} and {{Equat ...ly indicate that they both are generated by a ''P''-wave source. (An ''S''-wave source would have generated ''SS'' and ''SP'' data.)
    12 KB (1,895 words) - 09:44, 7 October 2014
  • ...al to the angle of incidence; however, the reflection angle for the ''PS''-wave is smaller than the angle of incidence. As a result, the ''PP'' reflection ...S''-wave. This means that, for an earth model with flat layers, the ''PP''-wave reflection points coincide with the midpoint location (Figure 11.6-31a); wh
    10 KB (1,450 words) - 09:57, 7 October 2014
  • ...deformation along the propagation path in the subsurface. The equation of wave propagation in elastic solids are derived by using Hooke’s law and Newton ==L.2 Elastic wave equation==
    84 KB (13,083 words) - 11:58, 12 September 2020
  • ...the intercept section represent the one-dimensional (1-D), primary, ''P''-wave reflectivity series associated with vertical incidence. Care must be given ...]]). Implicit to [[CMP stacking]], we must assume that the reflected ''P''-wave amplitude variation with angle of incidence measured along the normal-moveo
    6 KB (779 words) - 18:02, 6 October 2014
  • ...nd has furnished case studies to advance the science and practice of shear-wave imaging and interpretation. ...es an alignment between research and the current interests of industry, as reflected by sponsors’ votes. Research results are reported directly to sponsors, e
    5 KB (687 words) - 10:43, 28 September 2015
  • ...osely spaced interfaces. If the resultant upgoing reflections overlap, the reflected seismic energy will interfere and alter the amplitude response of the true
    7 KB (929 words) - 16:38, 16 February 2016
  • ...fundamental to reflection seismology. The result (derived below) for the p-wave reflection coefficient (RC) at [[Dictionary:Normal_incidence|normal inciden ...h>\rho_{1}</math> and <math>V_{1}</math> are the density and compressional wave velocity of the medium above a reflecting interface.
    11 KB (1,531 words) - 19:57, 19 September 2020
  • ...they are recorded by a receiver. After calculating the arrival time of the reflected waves and creating a velocity model, size and depth of the underground refl
    12 KB (1,835 words) - 17:06, 3 September 2015
  • ...n: An antenna emits a short pulse which travels through the subsurface, is reflected at inhomogeneity and travels back to a receiver antenna. Due to because of ...account the frequency dependence of the projections ratio in the Rayleigh wave along with the analysis of its dispersion characteristic. The possibilities
    13 KB (2,033 words) - 11:38, 21 September 2015
  • ...icated to developing the theory of forward and inverse modeling of seismic wave propagation in heterogeneous and fluid-saturated media. The other aims at u ...l and mathematical sciences), with a theme Kinematic interpretation of the reflected seismic waves (the theory and algorithms)».
    10 KB (1,440 words) - 08:22, 14 April 2015
  • ...d areas whereupon a sensor then detects and measures the radiation that is reflected or backscattered from the target.RADAR and LiDAR are examples of active * Ultrasound (acoustic) and radar tide gauges measure sea level, tides and wave direction in coastal and offshore tide gauges.
    18 KB (2,692 words) - 04:32, 28 April 2017
  • ...k and forth over only a small portion of the section so that the resulting wave blends with the primary pulse, changing its waveshape and adding a tail. Se
    376 bytes (58 words) - 18:47, 27 April 2017
  • Seismic data gives only reflection image of subsurface generated by [[sound wave]]s. Seismic stratigraphy techniques help us for stratigraphic interpretatio ...ect of a wave between the interface of the water and the sea floor, and is reflected in the substructure.
    11 KB (1,645 words) - 16:48, 8 December 2018
  • ...es the channel. (<b>e</b>) The high-frequency portion of (d), the <b>water wave</b>; its arrival is used in refraction work to determine the range. (From C
    1 KB (199 words) - 21:45, 19 June 2017
  • {{#category_index:C|channel wave}} ...Special:MyLanguage/Dictionary:Fig_C-2|C-2]]. A channel is also called a <b>wave guide</b> and channel waves are also called <b>guided waves</b> and <b>norm
    2 KB (304 words) - 10:32, 11 July 2017
  • ...ons. The reflectivity of the earth is approximated by using subsurface and reflected wavefields. <ref>PGS. Reverse Time Migration. Retrieved November 1, 2017, f
    6 KB (852 words) - 14:08, 4 January 2018
  • ...еанах. Применимы также термины seam wave, guided wave, normal mode propagation ...es the channel. (<b>e</b>) The high-frequency portion of (d), the <b>water wave</b>; its arrival is used in refraction work to determine the range. (From C
    2 KB (146 words) - 09:23, 4 October 2017
  • ...ating fluids that are halted when encountering the nonporous salt. Seismic wave velocity in the salt is as much as two and one-half times that in the surro ...e dynamite blast was radioed to the recorder and onset time of the seismic wave was measured from timing marks on the recording paper.
    4 KB (579 words) - 14:42, 21 February 2019
  • ...terface.png|thumb|Diagram showing the mode conversions that occur when a P-wave reflects off an interface at non-normal incidence]] ...hat describe the partitioning of [[Special:MyLanguage/seismic wave|seismic wave]] energy at an interface, typically a boundary between two different layers
    9 KB (1,301 words) - 06:09, 22 October 2017
  • Using the EWR (Electromagnetic Wave Resistivity) tool, one can measure resistivity of the formation and infiltr ...hole assembly (BHA) is pulled. The CDR tool uses a 2-MHz electromagnetic wave to measure the difference between phase shift and amplitudes measured downh
    9 KB (1,376 words) - 14:09, 4 January 2018
  • ...terface.png|thumb|Diagram showing the mode conversions that occur when a P-wave reflects off an interface at non-normal incidence]] ...hat describe the partitioning of [[Special:MyLanguage/seismic wave|seismic wave]] energy at an interface, typically a boundary between two different layers
    9 KB (1,299 words) - 12:12, 26 October 2017
  • {{#category_index:S|standing wave}} ...length intervals. Continuous-wave radio-navigation systems set up standing-wave patterns.
    523 bytes (68 words) - 05:30, 1 November 2017
  • ...eflector mainly effective in generating a reflection since, for a harmonic wave, the effects of successive zones generally cancel each other. A nomogram fo
    1 KB (201 words) - 11:13, 21 November 2017
  • ...the first arrival of the downgoing wave is time-coincident with an upgoing wave.&#x2019;&#x2019;
    550 bytes (85 words) - 12:16, 7 March 2017
  • ...f layers 1, 2, and ''V''<sub>''S''1</sub>, ''V''<sub>''S''2</sub> is the S-wave velocity in layers 1, 2.
    524 bytes (80 words) - 13:34, 19 February 2017
  • ...here you'll see that we can correct the measured traveltime of a reflected wave ''t'' at a given offset ''x'' to obtain the traveltime at normal incidence
    9 KB (1,356 words) - 18:45, 8 May 2017
  • ...cuum, 2.997 925&#x00D7;10<sup>8</sup>&#x0020;m/s. <b>3</b>. A seismic wave reflected at the Earth&#x2019;s mantle-core boundary.
    261 bytes (42 words) - 14:54, 29 January 2017
  • ...2</b>. Seismic wave energy falling on a reflector and thus available to be reflected. It depends on source-receiver configuration and velocity distribution, esp
    482 bytes (64 words) - 23:22, 18 January 2017
  • ...and block media. He introduced a concept of a tip-wave beam composed from reflected/transmitted waves and associated [[edge waves|edge and tip waves]]. In the ...to enhance the resolution of details in the underground. The edge and tip wave theory of diffractions provides a physically sound and mathematical consist
    2 KB (327 words) - 15:37, 14 February 2017
  • ...es (radar), usually in the 10 to 1000 MHz band. The two-way traveltimes of reflected radar waves give the depths where changes in electrical properties occur. A ...e or propagate as a radio wave. Responses to the EM field that propagate a wave are measured as signal by the receiving antenna.
    14 KB (2,083 words) - 09:49, 21 September 2017
  • ...from [[Dictionary:reflection|reflected]] [[Dictionary:seismic wave|seismic wave]]s. The method requires a controlled [[Dictionary:source|seismic source]] o
    528 bytes (70 words) - 17:42, 28 September 2016
  • ...attached to the sides with a coil of wire suspended inside the magnet. As reflected waves return, the body of the geophone vibrates with the ground caused by t ...ifference travels through the water column and into the subsurface, and is reflected back up to the surface. Below are a few examples of sources used in marine
    19 KB (2,977 words) - 17:21, 21 April 2020
  • ...s trailed behind the ship. Sharp pulses are detections that the pulses of reflected sound arrived. The sound intensity is a function of time. The air gun is sh
    9 KB (1,350 words) - 15:41, 11 October 2018
  • Since each seismic wave fronts has different arrival times at each station and those times are conditional to slowness and wave front sensor location, the next time
    12 KB (1,892 words) - 14:37, 28 October 2020
  • ...into the ground, and measurements of the amplitude and travel time of the reflected waves are recorded. The contrasts of the electrical properties of the groun ...lous can be identified by deviations from the general pattern that seismic wave velocities normally increase with depth (mainly due to the pressure increas
    11 KB (1,690 words) - 22:32, 17 April 2018
  • Vertical resolution can be calculated from the length of the propagation wave and the layer thickness below 1/4 wavelength for resolving limits of beds. ...λ/4. If the wavelength is larger than λ/4 from the zone where energy was reflected, then the resolution is lower.<ref name=":1" />
    8 KB (1,144 words) - 22:45, 19 April 2018
  • {{#category_index:T|turning wave}} ...ath (for example, by an overhanging salt flank), it is called a <b>turning-wave reflection</b> (see Figure [[Special:MyLanguage/Dictionary:Fig_D-19|D-19]])
    597 bytes (94 words) - 15:26, 9 April 2019
  • ...es the channel. (<b>e</b>) The high-frequency portion of (d), the <b>water wave</b>; its arrival is used in refraction work to determine the range. (From C
    802 bytes (130 words) - 09:25, 28 March 2018
  • ...e picked with reasonable certainty. Depends on the energy of the reflected wave, the presence of noise, and the processing to which the data are subjected
    491 bytes (71 words) - 09:56, 28 March 2018
  • This model is a consequence of the concept that each reflected wave causes its own effect at each geophone (or hydrophone) independent of what
    782 bytes (124 words) - 10:19, 28 March 2018
  • The energy or wave from a seismic source that has been reflected (returned) from an acoustic-impedance contrast (<b>reflector</b>) or series
    620 bytes (85 words) - 10:20, 28 March 2018
  • {{#category_index:R|reflected refraction}} ...ys coplanar. <br>(<b>d</b>) Multiply reflected refractions. <br>(<b>e</b>) Reflected refractions do not always involve head waves.]]
    1 KB (177 words) - 10:21, 28 March 2018
  • ...l&#x2202; nat&#x2019; ik) The locus for a given traveltime of wave energy reflected or refracted at a surface. Wavefronts are aplanatic surfaces for reflection
    849 bytes (120 words) - 10:21, 28 March 2018
  • ...url=http://www.glossary.oilfield.slb.com/Terms/t/tube_wave.aspx|title=Tube wave|accessdate=May 15, 2018}}</ref> It propagates along the cylindrical fluid-s ==Tube wave modes==
    3 KB (493 words) - 08:09, 25 September 2019
  • ...locity. The intensity of the reflection is dependent on how much energy is reflected back at the interface boundary<ref>Hart, Bruce (2011) "Introduction to Seis [http://petrowiki.org/Seismic_wave_propagation Seismic Wave Propagation]
    8 KB (1,164 words) - 07:59, 24 July 2018
  • {{#category_index:S|sky-wave interference}} ...unset, so sky-wave interference is especially variable at these times. Sky-wave interference degrades the accuracy and range of radio-positioning systems.
    425 bytes (57 words) - 23:01, 14 September 2018
  • ...adjacent to each other. This velocity difference controls the incident and reflected ray paths, defined by [[Snell's law|Snell’s Law]], affecting the travel-t ...time migration|Reverse Time Migration]] (RTM), or [[Wave-equation datuming|Wave Equation Migration]] (WEM) algorithms to more adequately adjust the seismic
    10 KB (1,438 words) - 23:48, 4 December 2018
  • Huygens’s principle (see problem 3.1) states that waves are reflected from all illuminated parts of a reflector, the phase varying with the two-w ...“''the Fresnel zone''”) is the portion of the reflector from which the reflected energy arrives more-or-less in-phase so that it adds constructively. For co
    5 KB (748 words) - 16:13, 8 November 2019
  • wave velocity in the salt is as much as two and one-half times that in the surro ...e dynamite blast was radioed to the recorder and onset time of the seismic wave was measured from timing marks on the recording paper. Commencing in the ea
    5 KB (781 words) - 11:40, 9 January 2019
  • ...wave, or a P-wave generated by an incident S-wave, is called a ''converted wave''. | align="center" | [[Potential functions used to solve wave equations]]
    5 KB (609 words) - 12:22, 14 February 2019
  • ...ones so oriented that one records only the vertical component of a seismic wave, another only the horizontal component in the direction of the source, and | '''A P-wave traveling directly from the source to the geophones'''
    4 KB (503 words) - 12:06, 14 February 2019
  • A tube wave has a velocity of 1050 m/s. The fluid in the borehole has a bulk modulus of ...e, (b) reflected P-wave, (c) converted S-wave, (d) Rayleigh wave, (e) Love wave. U, D = up, down; A, T = away (from), toward (source); L, R = left, right.]
    6 KB (882 words) - 12:07, 14 February 2019
  • ...preading of energy radiating from a virtual point source). Since a wave is reflected by all parts ofa surface, we can consider each point on the surface as a po * [[General solutions of the wave equation]]
    8 KB (1,189 words) - 12:14, 14 February 2019
  • ...solid media. This generates reflected and refracted P-waves and converted reflected and refracted S-waves. Amplitudes, angles of incidence and refraction, and ...s are the amplitudes of the four waves generated by the incident wave, the reflected and refracted P- and S-waves, <math>A_{1}</math>, <math>A_{2}</math>, <math
    8 KB (1,232 words) - 10:19, 25 February 2019
  • ...ations for a P-wave incident on a liquid/solid interface when the incident wave is (i) in the liquid and (ii) in the solid. ...lacements, the instantaneous kinetic energy density ''E'' for a harmonic P-wave <math>u=A\cos \omega t</math> is equal to
    18 KB (2,524 words) - 17:05, 7 November 2019
  • Derive Zoeppritz’s equations for an SV-wave incident on a solid/solid interface. ...isplacements except that the incident P-wave is replaced by an incident SV-wave whose positive direction is down and to the left (the same as that of <math
    10 KB (1,360 words) - 17:06, 7 November 2019
  • ...th <math>h</math>, show that the maximum amplitude of a downgoing incident wave and its reflection at the surface of the sea occurs at the depth <math>\lam Since the interface is liquid/vacuum, only two waves exist, the incident and reflected P-waves. Taking the ''z''-axis positive downward, we take <math>\mathcal{P}
    4 KB (533 words) - 17:07, 7 November 2019
  • ...ath>T</math> of equations (3.6a,b), for a sandstone/shale interface (for a wave incident from the sandstone) for the following: ...{2} \cos ^{2} \omega t</math>, <math>\rho</math> being the density. As the wave progresses, the energy changes back and forth between kinetic and potential
    7 KB (990 words) - 17:08, 7 November 2019
  • ...-leg multiples. A notable example of the latter occurs in marine work when wave energy bounces back and forth within the water layer. The energy density of a wave (see problem 3.7) decreases continuously as the wave progresses because of two factors: ''absorption'' and ''spreading'' or ''di
    16 KB (2,180 words) - 17:09, 7 November 2019
  • ...from the source <math>S</math> to the receiver <math>R</math> after being reflected at <math>C</math>, the angle of incidence <math>\alpha</math> being equal t
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  • ...as far above the surface as <math>I_1</math> is below. If this multiple is reflected a second time at the horizon, the image point <math>I_3</math> is located o ...=(-660, 5400)</math>. The image for the surface multiple <math>I_2</math> (reflected at the reflector and then at the surface) is at <math>-660, -5400</math>.
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  • | *A head wave is generated at the base of layer 5. |* Head wave generated.
    15 KB (1,982 words) - 14:39, 4 March 2019
  • A wave is ''coherent'' when it appears on successive traces in a systematic way an ...tenuation will be mainly that of the diffraction tails, (2) indicates that reflected refractions from off to the side of the line may have hyperbolic curvature,
    5 KB (594 words) - 12:33, 15 May 2019
  • ...iple of least time'' (more accurately, ''of stationary time'') states that wave travel between any two points is along the path for which the traveltime is ...>(0,\; h_{1} )</math> and <math>(a,\; h_{2} )</math>. The traveltime for a wave from <math>S</math> to <math>R</math> with reflecting point <math>M(x,\; 0)
    5 KB (679 words) - 12:34, 15 May 2019
  • Redraw Figure 6.4a for a plane wave incident on the reflector, and explain the significance of the changes whic ...ected by the plane reflector produces a plane wavefront (''R''), i.e., the reflected wavefront has zero curvature. For a point diffractor the virtual source is
    5 KB (641 words) - 16:15, 8 November 2019
  • ...ection coefficient at the surface is <math>-1</math>, the combined primary wave plus ghost at point <math>P</math> is Equation (6.7a) gives for the amplitude of the primary wave plus ghost,
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  • Figure 6.13a shows events from a high-velocity layer 1.5 wave-lengths thick embedded in lower velocity media; they have been corrected fo A wide-angle reflection is one reflected at an angle greater than the critical angle.
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  • For the reflected diffraction from <math>S_{1}</math> (diffracted at A), the virtual source ( For the reflected refraction from <math>S_{3}</math> (reflected at C), we find two traveltimes and then draw a straight line through them.
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  • | the direct wave; a straight line through the source with slope (1/2.50) s/km; | a reflected head wave between <math>S</math> and <math>G</math> from reflection point <math>H</ma
    11 KB (1,666 words) - 16:25, 8 November 2019
  • ...> and the curve is parallel to the other reflected refraction. To plot the reflected-refraction curves, we need one point on each curve and then use the refract ...>N</math> will give rise to upgoing rays which will be reflected, giving a reflected refraction, such as the ray that ends at <math>R_{8}</math>. The traveltime
    9 KB (1,199 words) - 16:28, 8 November 2019
  • ...ay distance <math>\frac{1}{4}\lambda</math>) one half-cycle of the wavelet reflected from the base interferes destructively with the next half-cycle from the to * [[Effect of reflector curvature on a plane wave]]
    4 KB (483 words) - 16:28, 8 November 2019
  • ...source depth; this is the case when the second half-cycle of the downgoing wave is reinforced ...cement depth in marine recording]], see problem 3.5. The ghost is the wave reflected at the surface (or at the base of the LVL) with a reversal of phase (see pr
    5 KB (739 words) - 17:32, 8 November 2019
  • ...s into short wavelets, thereby removing much of the overlap of the lengthy reflected wavetrains to produce a more-or-less normal seismic record. ...rmonic. The second harmonic produces reflected wavetrains like the primary reflected wavetrains, but these correlate with the sweep signal to indicate different
    8 KB (1,154 words) - 13:44, 25 June 2019
  • ...</math> the sampling interval. Bounces can occur before or after a wave is reflected at deeper reflectors. We assign unit amplitude to a primary reflection with
    9 KB (1,241 words) - 10:14, 16 July 2019
  • ...ficient <math>=0.1</math> (value scaled up and rounded off). Determine the reflected waveshape for sands 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 m thick encased in shale. (A thic ...interference that occurs when the travelpath difference between the waves reflected at top and bottom of a bed produces a half-cycle shift, which occurs at a t
    24 KB (2,384 words) - 10:15, 16 July 2019
  • ...^{3}</math>, the sampling interval <math>\Delta =4</math> ms, and that the reflected signal is <math>[6,\; -7,\; -2.8,\; 5.6,\; -1.6]</math>, find the original The reflection coefficient involved in ghosting at the base of the LVL by a wave approaching from below is given by equation (3.6a), the value being
    7 KB (1,072 words) - 10:16, 16 July 2019
  • When a reflected wave is recorded by receivers on the sea floor, a ghost produced by reflection a ...x{ms}}</math>. The source ghost will have opposite polarity to the primary wave, with a delay of 13 ms corresponding to a frequency of 77 Hz; thus, it will
    5 KB (682 words) - 10:16, 16 July 2019
  • ...ta provides information about how fast acoustic waves travel through rock. Wave propagation which produces the P-waves in sonic logs follow properties acco ...ed by coming in contact with fracture or bedding planes and are internally reflected <ref name="Crain's" />. Another form of attenuation occurs when a foreign s
    8 KB (1,249 words) - 20:12, 4 December 2019
  • ...y in the time and displacement domain, is converted into the frequency and wave number (F-k) domain as seen in [[:File:Fk domain.png|figure 1]] below. The ...ang, D., & Ling, Y. (2016). Phase-shift- and phase-filtering-based surface-wave suppression method. ''Applied Geophysics,'' ''13''(4), 614-620.</ref>]]
    6 KB (961 words) - 16:49, 4 December 2019
  • ...e dynamite blast was radioed to the recorder and onset time of the seismic wave was measured from timing marks on the recording paper. Commencing in the ea
    3 KB (550 words) - 11:36, 1 November 2019
  • ...) Energy fractions for reflected P-waves as a function of density ratio; P-wave velocity contrast 1.5, Poisson's ratio 0.25. (From Tooley et al., 1965.)
    817 bytes (120 words) - 11:13, 2 March 2020
  • ...stratified medium composed of ''m'' layers, each layer having a different wave velocity, as shown in Figure 16. The transit time from ''A'' to ''B'' is th ...ecting surface is greater than that of the tangent elliptical surface, the reflected path ''ADB'' traversed by a ray then would be a relative minimum. At the ot
    16 KB (2,529 words) - 13:31, 22 April 2021
  • The ubiquity of [[Dictionary:Shear-wave_splitting|shear-wave splitting]] in the sedimentary crust was first documented ...Bielanski, 1986. Azimuthal anisotropy: The occurrence and effect on shear wave data quality:
    8 KB (1,187 words) - 23:51, 22 September 2020
  • ...r-wave_splitting_in_anisotropic_media|split]]; this is called a '''split C-wave'''. See main pages: [[C-wave]], [[Alford rotation]]
    300 bytes (43 words) - 23:37, 22 September 2020
  • ...erpretation will be. If the recorded events consist of distinct waveforms, reflected or refracted from essentially plane-parallel horizontal subsurface strata, ...provides us with a detailed exposition of the complex processes of elastic wave propagation in solids. The general theory has been a subject for investigat
    9 KB (1,317 words) - 12:48, 22 April 2021
  • ...’s wave aspects, nevertheless are independent of the exact nature of the wave. As we shall see, the most important such concept is again [[Special:MyLang ...angles involved. The angular relationship between the incident ray and the reflected ray now will be derived with an application of [[Special:MyLanguage/Huygens
    14 KB (2,192 words) - 16:56, 22 April 2021
  • ...efficient is close to unity in magnitude. The reflection coefficient for a wave striking the water surface from below is <math>-{\varepsilon }_0</math>. ...e water layer acts as an imperfect energy trap in which a seismic pulse is reflected successively between its two interfaces. Energy that bounces back and forth
    10 KB (1,274 words) - 10:58, 4 May 2021
  • ...eater is the magnitude of the reflection coefficient. For computation, the wave motion is digitized so that a signal becomes a discrete sequence (that is, ...tion. A pulse that is normally incident on interface ''i'' is split into a reflected pulse and a transmitted pulse. Energy is conserved. As a consequence, the m
    10 KB (1,418 words) - 10:51, 4 May 2021
  • ...d more than once. A ''primary reflection'' represents energy that has been reflected only once and hence is not a multiple. All recorded seismic energy involves ...he body can be accounted for, over time, in terms of the resulting elastic wave motion.
    13 KB (1,897 words) - 10:42, 4 May 2021
  • ...ted at the interface of medium 2 with an upper medium 1, and the downgoing reflected pulse (called the ''ghost reflection'') forms a composite wavelet with the ...} Reflection and transmission for an upgoing wave at an interface. All the wave directions are vertical, but they are depicted as slanting lines for visual
    9 KB (1,311 words) - 10:33, 4 May 2021
  • ...math>v_{2}</math>. The result is that a portion of the wave energy will be reflected at the interface, and the remainder will be transmitted. ...ms of particle velocity is different from the reflection coefficient for a wave in which amplitude is measured in terms of pressure. The same statement hol
    10 KB (1,472 words) - 10:23, 4 May 2021
  • ...ction at every such interface. This upcoming reflected energy is, in turn, reflected back ''down'' from a shallower interface; this double reflection constitute An example of this process, in data from a downgoing wave as measured in a [[Dictionary:Vertical_seismic_profiling|VSP]] is given in
    2 KB (277 words) - 00:37, 30 September 2020
  • ...way except for a spherical correction factor. However, in two dimensions, wave propagation is complicated and distorted. By its very nature, 2D processing ...sage of a seismic wave from the source to the depth point from which it is reflected and then a direct passage back to the receiver. In other words, a primary r
    12 KB (1,692 words) - 15:40, 23 April 2021
  • ...s (elasticity and/or density) that gives rise to a seismic reflection. The reflected energy returns to the surface, where it is recorded. For each source activa | align="center" | [[:Category:Wave Motion|Wave Motion]]
    6 KB (784 words) - 15:49, 23 April 2021
  • .... To reiterate, a primary reflection is an event that represents a seismic wave’s passage from the source to the depth point and then its passage directl ...s are called signal-generated noise. Thus, we are faced with a problem of (reflected) signal enhancement and (signal-generated) noise suppression.
    8 KB (1,064 words) - 15:53, 23 April 2021
  • ...me will appear in the same direction as the raypaths. By using the correct wave velocity, the time axis can be converted into the depth axis. The result is ...gration were based either on ray theory or on a graphic application of the wave equation (as in [[Special:MyLanguage/Huygens’ principle|Huygens’ princi
    16 KB (2,344 words) - 16:00, 23 April 2021
  • ...ravels in this way until it reaches the far end of the string, where it is reflected. However, as long as the pulse moves uninterrupted, it preserves its same s [[Category:Wave Motion]]
    4 KB (523 words) - 11:36, 22 April 2021
  • ...mall swiftness and large slowness in shallow layers. Conversely, a seismic wave goes with large swiftness and small slowness in deep layers. ...geometric acoustics, or geometric seismology, as the case may be. When the wave character cannot be ignored, then the methods of physical optics, physical
    9 KB (1,419 words) - 15:19, 26 April 2021
  • ...trace <math>\textit{f}\left(S,R,t\right)</math> gives the amplitude of the reflected signal as a function of two-way [[Special:MyLanguage/traveltime|traveltime] ...l properties at a point are the same in all directions. In particular, the wave velocity at a point is the same in all directions. In an isotropic medium,
    9 KB (1,443 words) - 13:02, 30 April 2021
  • A raypath is a course along which wave energy propagates through the earth. In isotropic media, the raypath is per ...way (i.e., down and up) time for a path originating at source point ''S'', reflected at depth point ''D'', and received at receiver point ''R''. Associated with
    15 KB (1,648 words) - 13:31, 30 April 2021
  • ...ack and forth among various interfaces as it proceeds on its trip. (4) The reflected waves, both primaries and multiples, are detected on the surface by receive ...picture, of the subsurface. This picture stands by itself, apart from its wave-motion origin. The many-faceted features of the picture are intended to rev
    8 KB (1,146 words) - 14:21, 30 April 2021
  • ...takes into account its debt to [[Special:MyLanguage/the wave equation|the wave equation]], uses a plethora of nonwave-equation techniques. Interpretive pr What is the layer-cake model? Reflected seismic energy, as measured at the surface of the earth, makes up the obser
    11 KB (1,757 words) - 14:24, 30 April 2021
  • ...ly elastic. Real rocks are always inelastic to some extent. When a seismic wave travels through the real earth, kinetic energy is lost forever because heat ...gy is transmitted through the interface. The rest of the kinetic energy is reflected away from the interface. In extrinsic absorption, kinetic energy is not los
    5 KB (733 words) - 14:36, 30 April 2021
  • ...r concepts often are used instead. One is Fermat’s principle, which lets wave propagation be reduced to the study of raypaths that have minimal traveltim ...lection seismology, we have two equally important quantities: the times of reflected events and the velocities of seismic waves as they travel through the earth
    7 KB (1,040 words) - 14:46, 30 April 2021
  • ...waves from a surface source propagate to an interface from which they are reflected. Then the waves propagate back to receivers on a convenient recording surfa * [[Special:MyLanguage/The wave equation|The wave equation]]
    8 KB (1,177 words) - 14:49, 30 April 2021
  • ...ection coefficient 0.1. The part that is transmitted into the sandstone is reflected at the bottom of the sandstone layer with reflection coefficient –0.1. Pl ...ven by 8, 7, –7, –5, 0, 4, 2, find the composite wavelet shape that is reflected by the sandstone layer. Explain why we can say in this case that the top an
    8 KB (992 words) - 13:49, 3 May 2021
  • ...f those cosine curves will be in phase - that is, the crest of each cosine wave will occur at the maximum (or central) value of the [[Special:MyLanguage/Au The resolution of reflected events on a seismic trace (i.e., their distinct separation in time so that
    7 KB (987 words) - 15:54, 3 May 2021
  • ...geophysicists. At this final stage, the physical properties of transmitted wave motion are no longer important or even needed. Instead, a nonphysical wavel ...d reflection coefficients in the reflectivity function. At this point, all wave-propagation features that were present in the original received trace — s
    22 KB (3,348 words) - 11:08, 5 May 2021
  • ...signal ''s'' is sent into an unknown subsurface region, and the resulting reflected signal or transmitted signal, as the case may be, is recorded as a trace '' ...ell known that the surface reflection coefficient (for an upgoing pressure wave) of the sea-to-air interface approximates the value of -1. This nearly perf
    8 KB (1,083 words) - 13:29, 5 May 2021
  • ...oing wave at the receiver). If we consider the output given by the upgoing wave at the receiver, then we have a conventional [[Special:MyLanguage/convoluti ...ystem is the downgoing wave at the receiver, and the output is the upgoing wave at the receiver. The ''impulse-response function'' is the reflection respon
    13 KB (1,917 words) - 16:45, 5 May 2021
  • ...nvolution methods designed to remove effects that tend to mask the primary reflected events on a seismogram. Such masking effects can be produced by the earth i ...s reflected, and the remainder of the energy is transmitted. The amount of reflected energy depends on the reflection coefficient of the interface. If we plot t
    8 KB (1,171 words) - 10:02, 6 May 2021
  • ...n coefficient is the ratio of the reflected wave amplitude to the incident wave amplitude. Show that the Fresnel reflection coefficient is the ratio of the ...flections; such a densely packed group of echoes is called a reverberation wave train. As a result of attenuation at each reflection, the amplitude of the
    22 KB (3,335 words) - 10:26, 6 May 2021
  • 35. Two-step deconvolution is aimed at suppressing the multiple wave train and then spiking the remaining primary wavelet. Can the sequence be i ...ef name=ch11r23>Treitel, S., P. R. Gutowski, and D. E. Wagner, 1982, Plane-wave decomposition of seismograms: Geophysics, '''47''', 1375-1401.</ref>.
    34 KB (5,057 words) - 16:44, 19 May 2021
  • ...age represents the true subsurface rock structure and no longer represents wave motion, as do the raw seismic records. The intricacies of seismic wave motion and the conversion of that wave motion into an image via seismic processing generally are peripheral to [[S
    9 KB (1,256 words) - 13:41, 6 May 2021
  • ...wave'' as it propagates through a medium. Attenuation — the falloff of a wave’s energy with distance — has three main causes: (1) transmission loss a ...ce, some energy is reflected back from the interface, and only part of the wave’s energy is transmitted though the interface.
    11 KB (1,574 words) - 12:46, 10 May 2021
  • ...ravels in this way until it reaches the far end of the string, where it is reflected. However, as long as the pulse moves uninterrupted, it preserves its same s [[Category:Wave Motion]]
    4 KB (503 words) - 11:36, 22 April 2021
  • ...ravels in this way until it reaches the far end of the string, where it is reflected. However, as long as the pulse moves uninterrupted, it preserves its same s
    4 KB (516 words) - 07:44, 7 May 2021
  • ...erpretation will be. If the recorded events consist of distinct waveforms, reflected or refracted from essentially plane-parallel horizontal subsurface strata, ...provides us with a detailed exposition of the complex processes of elastic wave propagation in solids. The general theory has been a subject for investigat
    9 KB (1,279 words) - 12:48, 22 April 2021
  • ...erpretation will be. If the recorded events consist of distinct waveforms, reflected or refracted from essentially plane-parallel horizontal subsurface strata, ...provides us with a detailed exposition of the complex processes of elastic wave propagation in solids. The general theory has been a subject for investigat
    9 KB (1,290 words) - 07:45, 7 May 2021
  • ...stratified medium composed of ''m'' layers, each layer having a different wave velocity, as shown in Figure 16. The transit time from ''A'' to ''B'' is th ...ecting surface is greater than that of the tangent elliptical surface, the reflected path ''ADB'' traversed by a ray then would be a relative minimum. At the ot
    15 KB (2,463 words) - 13:31, 22 April 2021
  • ...stratified medium composed of ''m'' layers, each layer having a different wave velocity, as shown in Figure 16. The transit time from ''A'' to ''B'' is th ...ecting surface is greater than that of the tangent elliptical surface, the reflected path ''ADB'' traversed by a ray then would be a relative minimum. At the ot
    15 KB (2,477 words) - 07:48, 7 May 2021
  • ...’s wave aspects, nevertheless are independent of the exact nature of the wave. As we shall see, the most important such concept is again [[Special:MyLang ...angles involved. The angular relationship between the incident ray and the reflected ray now will be derived with an application of [[Special:MyLanguage/Huygens
    14 KB (2,102 words) - 16:57, 22 April 2021
  • ...’s wave aspects, nevertheless are independent of the exact nature of the wave. As we shall see, the most important such concept is again [[Special:MyLang ...angles involved. The angular relationship between the incident ray and the reflected ray now will be derived with an application of [[Special:MyLanguage/Huygens
    13 KB (2,113 words) - 07:47, 7 May 2021
  • ...way except for a spherical correction factor. However, in two dimensions, wave propagation is complicated and distorted. By its very nature, 2D processing ...sage of a seismic wave from the source to the depth point from which it is reflected and then a direct passage back to the receiver. In other words, a primary r
    11 KB (1,642 words) - 15:40, 23 April 2021
  • ...way except for a spherical correction factor. However, in two dimensions, wave propagation is complicated and distorted. By its very nature, 2D processing ...sage of a seismic wave from the source to the depth point from which it is reflected and then a direct passage back to the receiver. In other words, a primary r
    11 KB (1,656 words) - 16:05, 7 May 2021
  • ...s (elasticity and/or density) that gives rise to a seismic reflection. The reflected energy returns to the surface, where it is recorded. For each source activa | align="center" | [[:Category:Wave Motion|Wave Motion]]
    5 KB (758 words) - 15:50, 23 April 2021
  • ...s (elasticity and/or density) that gives rise to a seismic reflection. The reflected energy returns to the surface, where it is recorded. For each source activa | align="center" | [[:Category:Wave Motion|Movimiento de ondas]]
    5 KB (780 words) - 16:06, 7 May 2021
  • .... To reiterate, a primary reflection is an event that represents a seismic wave’s passage from the source to the depth point and then its passage directl ...s are called signal-generated noise. Thus, we are faced with a problem of (reflected) signal enhancement and (signal-generated) noise suppression.
    7 KB (1,032 words) - 15:53, 23 April 2021
  • .... To reiterate, a primary reflection is an event that represents a seismic wave’s passage from the source to the depth point and then its passage directl ...s are called signal-generated noise. Thus, we are faced with a problem of (reflected) signal enhancement and (signal-generated) noise suppression.
    7 KB (1,047 words) - 16:06, 7 May 2021
  • ...me will appear in the same direction as the raypaths. By using the correct wave velocity, the time axis can be converted into the depth axis. The result is ...gration were based either on ray theory or on a graphic application of the wave equation (as in [[Special:MyLanguage/Huygens’ principle|Huygens’ princi
    15 KB (2,290 words) - 16:00, 23 April 2021
  • ...me will appear in the same direction as the raypaths. By using the correct wave velocity, the time axis can be converted into the depth axis. The result is ...gration were based either on ray theory or on a graphic application of the wave equation (as in [[Special:MyLanguage/Huygens’ principle|Huygens’ princi
    15 KB (2,308 words) - 16:07, 7 May 2021
  • ...mall swiftness and large slowness in shallow layers. Conversely, a seismic wave goes with large swiftness and small slowness in deep layers. ...geometric acoustics, or geometric seismology, as the case may be. When the wave character cannot be ignored, then the methods of physical optics, physical
    9 KB (1,395 words) - 16:08, 7 May 2021
  • ...mall swiftness and large slowness in shallow layers. Conversely, a seismic wave goes with large swiftness and small slowness in deep layers. ...geometric acoustics, or geometric seismology, as the case may be. When the wave character cannot be ignored, then the methods of physical optics, physical
    9 KB (1,379 words) - 15:20, 26 April 2021
  • ...trace <math>\textit{f}\left(S,R,t\right)</math> gives the amplitude of the reflected signal as a function of two-way [[Special:MyLanguage/traveltime|traveltime] ...l properties at a point are the same in all directions. In particular, the wave velocity at a point is the same in all directions. In an isotropic medium,
    9 KB (1,407 words) - 13:00, 30 April 2021
  • ...trace <math>\textit{f}\left(S,R,t\right)</math> gives the amplitude of the reflected signal as a function of two-way [[Special:MyLanguage/traveltime|traveltime] ...l properties at a point are the same in all directions. In particular, the wave velocity at a point is the same in all directions. In an isotropic medium,
    9 KB (1,426 words) - 16:15, 7 May 2021
  • A raypath is a course along which wave energy propagates through the earth. In isotropic media, the raypath is per ...way (i.e., down and up) time for a path originating at source point ''S'', reflected at depth point ''D'', and received at receiver point ''R''. Associated with
    14 KB (1,594 words) - 13:31, 30 April 2021
  • A raypath is a course along which wave energy propagates through the earth. In isotropic media, the raypath is per ...way (i.e., down and up) time for a path originating at source point ''S'', reflected at depth point ''D'', and received at receiver point ''R''. Associated with
    14 KB (1,611 words) - 16:16, 7 May 2021
  • ...ack and forth among various interfaces as it proceeds on its trip. (4) The reflected waves, both primaries and multiples, are detected on the surface by receive ...picture, of the subsurface. This picture stands by itself, apart from its wave-motion origin. The many-faceted features of the picture are intended to rev
    7 KB (1,108 words) - 14:21, 30 April 2021
  • ...ack and forth among various interfaces as it proceeds on its trip. (4) The reflected waves, both primaries and multiples, are detected on the surface by receive ...picture, of the subsurface. This picture stands by itself, apart from its wave-motion origin. The many-faceted features of the picture are intended to rev
    7 KB (1,120 words) - 15:11, 19 May 2021
  • ...takes into account its debt to [[Special:MyLanguage/the wave equation|the wave equation]], uses a plethora of nonwave-equation techniques. Interpretive pr What is the layer-cake model? Reflected seismic energy, as measured at the surface of the earth, makes up the obser
    11 KB (1,716 words) - 15:12, 19 May 2021
  • ...takes into account its debt to [[Special:MyLanguage/the wave equation|the wave equation]], uses a plethora of nonwave-equation techniques. Interpretive pr What is the layer-cake model? Reflected seismic energy, as measured at the surface of the earth, makes up the obser
    11 KB (1,699 words) - 14:26, 30 April 2021
  • ...ly elastic. Real rocks are always inelastic to some extent. When a seismic wave travels through the real earth, kinetic energy is lost forever because heat ...gy is transmitted through the interface. The rest of the kinetic energy is reflected away from the interface. In extrinsic absorption, kinetic energy is not los
    5 KB (715 words) - 15:15, 19 May 2021
  • ...ly elastic. Real rocks are always inelastic to some extent. When a seismic wave travels through the real earth, kinetic energy is lost forever because heat ...gy is transmitted through the interface. The rest of the kinetic energy is reflected away from the interface. In extrinsic absorption, kinetic energy is not los
    5 KB (701 words) - 14:37, 30 April 2021
  • ...r concepts often are used instead. One is Fermat’s principle, which lets wave propagation be reduced to the study of raypaths that have minimal traveltim ...lection seismology, we have two equally important quantities: the times of reflected events and the velocities of seismic waves as they travel through the earth
    7 KB (1,015 words) - 15:18, 19 May 2021
  • ...r concepts often are used instead. One is Fermat’s principle, which lets wave propagation be reduced to the study of raypaths that have minimal traveltim ...lection seismology, we have two equally important quantities: the times of reflected events and the velocities of seismic waves as they travel through the earth
    7 KB (1,000 words) - 14:47, 30 April 2021
  • ...waves from a surface source propagate to an interface from which they are reflected. Then the waves propagate back to receivers on a convenient recording surfa * [[Special:MyLanguage/The wave equation|The wave equation]]
    8 KB (1,133 words) - 14:50, 30 April 2021
  • ...waves from a surface source propagate to an interface from which they are reflected. Then the waves propagate back to receivers on a convenient recording surfa * [[The wave equation/es|La equación de onda]]
    8 KB (1,147 words) - 15:19, 19 May 2021
  • ...ection coefficient 0.1. The part that is transmitted into the sandstone is reflected at the bottom of the sandstone layer with reflection coefficient –0.1. Pl ...ven by 8, 7, –7, –5, 0, 4, 2, find the composite wavelet shape that is reflected by the sandstone layer. Explain why we can say in this case that the top an
    7 KB (914 words) - 13:49, 3 May 2021
  • ...ection coefficient 0.1. The part that is transmitted into the sandstone is reflected at the bottom of the sandstone layer with reflection coefficient –0.1. Pl ...ven by 8, 7, –7, –5, 0, 4, 2, find the composite wavelet shape that is reflected by the sandstone layer. Explain why we can say in this case that the top an
    7 KB (922 words) - 16:43, 7 May 2021
  • ...f those cosine curves will be in phase - that is, the crest of each cosine wave will occur at the maximum (or central) value of the [[Special:MyLanguage/Au The resolution of reflected events on a seismic trace (i.e., their distinct separation in time so that
    7 KB (959 words) - 15:54, 3 May 2021
  • ...f those cosine curves will be in phase - that is, the crest of each cosine wave will occur at the maximum (or central) value of the [[Special:MyLanguage/Au The resolution of reflected events on a seismic trace (i.e., their distinct separation in time so that
    7 KB (974 words) - 15:59, 19 May 2021
  • ...math>v_{2}</math>. The result is that a portion of the wave energy will be reflected at the interface, and the remainder will be transmitted. ...ms of particle velocity is different from the reflection coefficient for a wave in which amplitude is measured in terms of pressure. The same statement hol
    10 KB (1,390 words) - 10:24, 4 May 2021
  • ...math>v_{2}</math>. The result is that a portion of the wave energy will be reflected at the interface, and the remainder will be transmitted. ...ms of particle velocity is different from the reflection coefficient for a wave in which amplitude is measured in terms of pressure. The same statement hol
    10 KB (1,402 words) - 16:45, 7 May 2021
  • ...ted at the interface of medium 2 with an upper medium 1, and the downgoing reflected pulse (called the ''ghost reflection'') forms a composite wavelet with the ...} Reflection and transmission for an upgoing wave at an interface. All the wave directions are vertical, but they are depicted as slanting lines for visual
    9 KB (1,243 words) - 10:34, 4 May 2021
  • ...ted at the interface of medium 2 with an upper medium 1, and the downgoing reflected pulse (called the ''ghost reflection'') forms a composite wavelet with the ...} Reflection and transmission for an upgoing wave at an interface. All the wave directions are vertical, but they are depicted as slanting lines for visual
    9 KB (1,256 words) - 16:46, 7 May 2021
  • ...d more than once. A ''primary reflection'' represents energy that has been reflected only once and hence is not a multiple. All recorded seismic energy involves ...he body can be accounted for, over time, in terms of the resulting elastic wave motion.
    13 KB (1,851 words) - 10:43, 4 May 2021
  • ...d more than once. A ''primary reflection'' represents energy that has been reflected only once and hence is not a multiple. All recorded seismic energy involves ...he body can be accounted for, over time, in terms of the resulting elastic wave motion.
    13 KB (1,865 words) - 16:46, 7 May 2021
  • ...eater is the magnitude of the reflection coefficient. For computation, the wave motion is digitized so that a signal becomes a discrete sequence (that is, ...tion. A pulse that is normally incident on interface ''i'' is split into a reflected pulse and a transmitted pulse. Energy is conserved. As a consequence, the m
    9 KB (1,366 words) - 10:52, 4 May 2021
  • ...eater is the magnitude of the reflection coefficient. For computation, the wave motion is digitized so that a signal becomes a discrete sequence (that is, ...tion. A pulse that is normally incident on interface ''i'' is split into a reflected pulse and a transmitted pulse. Energy is conserved. As a consequence, the m
    9 KB (1,379 words) - 16:14, 19 May 2021
  • ...efficient is close to unity in magnitude. The reflection coefficient for a wave striking the water surface from below is <math>-{\varepsilon }_0</math>. ...e water layer acts as an imperfect energy trap in which a seismic pulse is reflected successively between its two interfaces. Energy that bounces back and forth
    9 KB (1,204 words) - 10:58, 4 May 2021
  • ...efficient is close to unity in magnitude. The reflection coefficient for a wave striking the water surface from below is <math>-{\varepsilon }_0</math>. ...e water layer acts as an imperfect energy trap in which a seismic pulse is reflected successively between its two interfaces. Energy that bounces back and forth
    9 KB (1,217 words) - 16:48, 7 May 2021
  • ...geophysicists. At this final stage, the physical properties of transmitted wave motion are no longer important or even needed. Instead, a nonphysical wavel ...d reflection coefficients in the reflectivity function. At this point, all wave-propagation features that were present in the original received trace — s
    21 KB (3,248 words) - 11:09, 5 May 2021
  • ...geophysicists. At this final stage, the physical properties of transmitted wave motion are no longer important or even needed. Instead, a nonphysical wavel ...d reflection coefficients in the reflectivity function. At this point, all wave-propagation features that were present in the original received trace — s
    21 KB (3,258 words) - 12:45, 5 May 2021
  • ...signal ''s'' is sent into an unknown subsurface region, and the resulting reflected signal or transmitted signal, as the case may be, is recorded as a trace '' ...ell known that the surface reflection coefficient (for an upgoing pressure wave) of the sea-to-air interface approximates the value of -1. This nearly perf
    7 KB (1,041 words) - 13:30, 5 May 2021
  • ...signal ''s'' is sent into an unknown subsurface region, and the resulting reflected signal or transmitted signal, as the case may be, is recorded as a trace '' ...ell known that the surface reflection coefficient (for an upgoing pressure wave) of the sea-to-air interface approximates the value of -1. This nearly perf
    7 KB (1,054 words) - 13:33, 5 May 2021
  • ...oing wave at the receiver). If we consider the output given by the upgoing wave at the receiver, then we have a conventional [[Special:MyLanguage/convoluti ...ystem is the downgoing wave at the receiver, and the output is the upgoing wave at the receiver. The ''impulse-response function'' is the reflection respon
    12 KB (1,844 words) - 16:51, 5 May 2021
  • ...oing wave at the receiver). If we consider the output given by the upgoing wave at the receiver, then we have a conventional [[Special:MyLanguage/convoluti ...ystem is the downgoing wave at the receiver, and the output is the upgoing wave at the receiver. The ''impulse-response function'' is the reflection respon
    12 KB (1,839 words) - 16:46, 5 May 2021
  • ...nvolution methods designed to remove effects that tend to mask the primary reflected events on a seismogram. Such masking effects can be produced by the earth i ...s reflected, and the remainder of the energy is transmitted. The amount of reflected energy depends on the reflection coefficient of the interface. If we plot t
    8 KB (1,168 words) - 16:36, 19 May 2021
  • ...nvolution methods designed to remove effects that tend to mask the primary reflected events on a seismogram. Such masking effects can be produced by the earth i ...s reflected, and the remainder of the energy is transmitted. The amount of reflected energy depends on the reflection coefficient of the interface. If we plot t
    8 KB (1,139 words) - 10:02, 6 May 2021
  • ...n coefficient is the ratio of the reflected wave amplitude to the incident wave amplitude. Show that the Fresnel reflection coefficient is the ratio of the ...flections; such a densely packed group of echoes is called a reverberation wave train. As a result of attenuation at each reflection, the amplitude of the
    21 KB (3,215 words) - 10:28, 6 May 2021
  • ...n coefficient is the ratio of the reflected wave amplitude to the incident wave amplitude. Show that the Fresnel reflection coefficient is the ratio of the ...flections; such a densely packed group of echoes is called a reverberation wave train. As a result of attenuation at each reflection, the amplitude of the
    21 KB (3,189 words) - 10:26, 6 May 2021
  • 35. Two-step deconvolution is aimed at suppressing the multiple wave train and then spiking the remaining primary wavelet. Can the sequence be i ...ef name=ch11r23>Treitel, S., P. R. Gutowski, and D. E. Wagner, 1982, Plane-wave decomposition of seismograms: Geophysics, '''47''', 1375-1401.</ref>.
    33 KB (4,907 words) - 16:45, 19 May 2021
  • 35. Two-step deconvolution is aimed at suppressing the multiple wave train and then spiking the remaining primary wavelet. Can the sequence be i ...ef name=ch11r23>Treitel, S., P. R. Gutowski, and D. E. Wagner, 1982, Plane-wave decomposition of seismograms: Geophysics, '''47''', 1375-1401.</ref>.
    33 KB (4,920 words) - 16:45, 19 May 2021
  • ...age represents the true subsurface rock structure and no longer represents wave motion, as do the raw seismic records. The intricacies of seismic wave motion and the conversion of that wave motion into an image via seismic processing generally are peripheral to [[S
    9 KB (1,223 words) - 13:42, 6 May 2021
  • ...age represents the true subsurface rock structure and no longer represents wave motion, as do the raw seismic records. The intricacies of seismic wave motion and the conversion of that wave motion into an image via seismic processing generally are peripheral to [[S
    9 KB (1,212 words) - 13:41, 6 May 2021
  • ...wave'' as it propagates through a medium. Attenuation — the falloff of a wave’s energy with distance — has three main causes: (1) transmission loss a ...ce, some energy is reflected back from the interface, and only part of the wave’s energy is transmitted though the interface.
    10 KB (1,516 words) - 12:51, 10 May 2021
  • ...wave'' as it propagates through a medium. Attenuation — the falloff of a wave’s energy with distance — has three main causes: (1) transmission loss a ...ce, some energy is reflected back from the interface, and only part of the wave’s energy is transmitted though the interface.
    10 KB (1,525 words) - 12:58, 10 May 2021