The polar vortex is an area of low pressure. It is located over the Earth’s poles, between the upper troposphere and the stratosphere levels.
Contrary to what most believe, the location of the vortex is not actually where humans are on earth. The polar vortex are located on the Earth's magnetic poles. Once you have located the poles you have to then go straight up until you are between the upper troposphere and the stratosphere levels.
It is believed that the reason the polar vortex is moving so much from the poles, is from climate change. It is has claims that because of melting ice caps the less ice there is the easier it can be pushed off the pole. Although that does play a part, thats not the only reason it shifts. Because of this the ozone levels are decreasing. With everything changing and levels of CO2 rising and being drawn to the poles it becomes highly concentrated and depletes the ozone layer.
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