Difference between revisions of "Marine ecosystem"

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This page is currently being authored by an undergraduate researcher at Penn State Brandywine. The page will be posted before the end of November 2015.
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[[File:Marine ecosystem.jpg | thumb | Shows the diversity in an marine ecosystem. by NOAA, 2015]]
Marine ecosystems make up the largest aquatic system in the world covering more then 70 percent of the planet. Marine ecosystems are considered to be the habitats that completes the large system from the shores to the dark abandoned sea floor. The marine ecosystem includes: marshes, tidal zones, estuaries, the mangrove forest, lagoons, seagrass beds, the sea floor, and the coral reefs. Just like every other ecosystem in the world, the aquatic ecosystems feed off each other maintaining a balanced marine ecosystem. The marine ecosystems are important to the world, because without them the marine life would not have any shelter, which will eventually make the marine life go extinct.
 
  
== First heading ==
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Marine ecosystems make up the largest aquatic system in the world covering more then 70 percent of the planet.<ref>[http://www.noaa.gov/ocean.html],NOAA, 2015.</ref> Marine ecosystems are considered to be the habitats that complete the larges system from the shores to the dark sea floor. The marine ecosystem includes: marshes, tidal zones, estuaries, the mangrove forest, lagoons, sea grass beds, the sea floor, and the coral reefs. Just like every other ecosystem in the world, the aquatic ecosystems rely on each other for maintaining a balanced marine ecosystem. The marine ecosystems are important to the world, because without them, the marine life would not have and protection from predators, which could eventually make the marine life go extinct.
The main headings in the article are ''second'' level headings, defined with two equals signs in the wikitext. You never need to use the top-level heading style, defined with one equals sign, as it is reserved for article titles. As with a scientific article, you have plenty of freedom about how to organize your content, but the reader may have some expectations about the order and style that you may want to take into account. <ref>Mooney et al., 2013. [http://www.pnas.org/content/110/Supplement_1/3665.full Evolution of natural and social science interactions in global change research programs]. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, v. 110, p. 3665-3672.</ref>.
 
  
Start with a brief bit of background about the subject. Relate it to other topics, using plenty of links. Create links with a pair of square brackets around key technical words and phrases.
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[[File:Food web.jpeg | thumb | Shows the food web of the marine ecosystem and what survives off of each other. by NOAA, 2015]]
  
=== Subheading ===
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== Marine ecosystems importance ==
In longer articles, it may make sense to have another level of headings. There are not many occasions when you will need to use '''H4''' headings (four '''=''' signs), so don't go there unless it's unavoidable. Never use more than four.<ref>Matt Hall, 2013, pers. comm. Sorry, this is the best reference I can find.</ref>
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Marine ecosystems are an important part of the world, because the marine ecosystems give marine life such as: tiny plankton, fish, crustaceans, invertebrates, reptiles, marine mammals, sharks, and rays a place to live and survive.<ref>[http://oceana.org/marine-life], Oceana protecting the world's oceans,2015.</ref> It also gives those marine animals a place to hunt. Many marine life have an important role in the world such as the tiny plankton because without them the world would build up with carbon dioxide, the plankton absorbs the carbon dioxide in the air and releases oxygen back into the air. Without marine ecosystems to protect the tiny plankton, more species would become extinct. The most important marine ecosystems for marine life are estuaries and coral reefs. These two marine ecosystems are important because the estuaries are breeding territories for many marine animals, because it is easy for young-lings to survive there, since there are no known predators that live in that region. Coral reefs are important for the marine life, because it provides a shelter for various amount of species.<ref>[http://www.climatecentral.org/news/great-barrier-reef-species-at-risk-19382],Climate central, 2015.</ref> Coral reefs also are the most diverse ecosystem in the whole aquatic system.<ref>[http://www.education.noaa.gov/Marine_Life/Coral_Ecosystems.html],NOAA, 2015.</ref> Without all the marine ecosystems, the marine food web and the whole ocean would be in danger of continuing in its current state.
  
== Second heading ==
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== Marine ecosystem threats ==
[[File:Eagle-ford-gets-spotlight04.jpg|thumb]]
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The threats that have impacted the marine ecosystems are pollution and overfishing. Pollution is impacting the marine ecosystems, because as more carbon dioxide is released into the air more of the ice caps are melting. Therefore, the rising of ocean levels and the decrease in salinity levels. Are causing problems for the marine life. If the salinity levels keep dropping the marine life that survive in salt water will not be able to survive in the fresh water rich waters. Pollution is killing marine animals not only in the salinity drop, but also they eat or get trapped in harmful garbage, marine life in the ocean die from swallowing or getting caught on trash everyday.<ref>[http://www.climatecentral.org/news/climate-change-will-alter-ocean-bacteria-19407],Climate central, 2015.</ref> Over one million sea birds are killed by pollution every year. Also three hundred dolphin and porpoise are killed by pollution, by either swallowing trash or getting tangled in trash and one hundred thousand marine mammals are killed by ingesting plastics and other pollution substance every year. <ref> [http://www.conserve-energy-future.com/various-ocean-pollution-facts.php], Conserve energy future, 2015 </ref> Pollution is a major reason why marine ecosystems are being threatened. But, another threat to marine ecosystems are overfishing. Overfishing is a threat for marine ecosystems because a decrease in number of a species will effect the marine food web disrupting the whole ocean. If overfishing causes a specie to become extinct in the marine ecosystem then it will have one of the species in the ocean to become overpopulated. Once one specie becomes overpopulated then that organism dominates the ocean making other species to become endangered or extinct. The threats in the marine ecosystems can have an impact that the system will never repair itself, which will disrupt the world more then any other ecosystem would. However, the Government stepped in and passed an amendment that decreases overfishing. This amendment helps the ocean to recover the decrease of marine animals. The amendment puts a set limit for the marine species we manage.<ref>[http://www.fisheries.noaa.gov/podcasts/2014/10/end_to_overfishing.html#.Vk4QnudBBao], NOAA, 2015.</ref> In 2014, 91 percent of annual limits were nit exceeded and only 9 percent were exceed. There are numinous amount of reason why catch limits are being exceeded such as: miscount of population, by catch in a fishery, and fishing rates are higher than estimated. Scientist track these number to manage overfishing so population does not deplete more. <ref> [http://www.nmfs.noaa.gov/sfa/management/acls_ams/index.html], NOAA, 2015. </ref>
You can add as many sections as you think you need to 'spiral out' from the core of the topic. Use judgment to decide when to split out a separate article.  
 
 
 
=== Subheading ===
 
In longer articles, it may make sense to have another level of headings. There are not many occasions when you will need to use '''H4''' headings (four '''=''' signs), so don't go there unless it's unavoidable. Never use more than four.<ref>Matt Hall, 2013, pers. comm. Sorry, this is the best reference I can find.</ref>
 
  
 
== See also ==
 
== See also ==
Other closely related articles in this wiki include:
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* [[Ocean Acidification]]
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* [[Ocean acidification]]
* [[Estuaries]]
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* [[Estuary]]
 
* [[Glacier]]
 
* [[Glacier]]
 
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* [[Coral reef]]
 
== References ==
 
== References ==
 
   
 
   
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== External links ==
 
== External links ==
Add any other relevant external links in the section.
 
  
* The home page of [http://www.bw.psu.edu/ Penn State Brandywine], the home of the EARTH 100 wiki article writers!
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* [http://www.eoearth.org/ Encyclopedia of Earth] - one of the sites I want you to explore to look for supporting articles.
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* How the whales are being disturbed [http://www.beringclimate.noaa.gov/essays_moore.html], by NOAA Marine Studies
* You should also search the websites for NASA, NOAA, USGS, EPA, and the [http://education.nationalgeographic.com/encyclopedia/ National Geographic Education Encyclopedia].
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* [http://www.nasa.gov/content/goddard/nasa-ocean-data-shows-climate-dance-of-plankton/#.Vij6yEarF-k] - by NASA Marine Studies
* Please DO NOT list the long URLs here! Let the user hover over text to get to a website (such as the examples provided above).
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* This page is a study by NOAA about the marine mammals [https://www.st.nmfs.noaa.gov/marine-mammals-turtles/surveys/index].
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* Helps people see the different species in the marine ecosystem [http://oceana.org/marine-life], by Oceana, 2015
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* Shows the marine animals that are at risk [http://www2.epa.gov/salish-sea/marine-species-risk], by EPA, 2015
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[[Category: Basics]]
 
[[Category: Basics]]

Latest revision as of 08:46, 24 November 2015

Shows the diversity in an marine ecosystem. by NOAA, 2015

Marine ecosystems make up the largest aquatic system in the world covering more then 70 percent of the planet.[1] Marine ecosystems are considered to be the habitats that complete the larges system from the shores to the dark sea floor. The marine ecosystem includes: marshes, tidal zones, estuaries, the mangrove forest, lagoons, sea grass beds, the sea floor, and the coral reefs. Just like every other ecosystem in the world, the aquatic ecosystems rely on each other for maintaining a balanced marine ecosystem. The marine ecosystems are important to the world, because without them, the marine life would not have and protection from predators, which could eventually make the marine life go extinct.

Shows the food web of the marine ecosystem and what survives off of each other. by NOAA, 2015

Marine ecosystems importance

Marine ecosystems are an important part of the world, because the marine ecosystems give marine life such as: tiny plankton, fish, crustaceans, invertebrates, reptiles, marine mammals, sharks, and rays a place to live and survive.[2] It also gives those marine animals a place to hunt. Many marine life have an important role in the world such as the tiny plankton because without them the world would build up with carbon dioxide, the plankton absorbs the carbon dioxide in the air and releases oxygen back into the air. Without marine ecosystems to protect the tiny plankton, more species would become extinct. The most important marine ecosystems for marine life are estuaries and coral reefs. These two marine ecosystems are important because the estuaries are breeding territories for many marine animals, because it is easy for young-lings to survive there, since there are no known predators that live in that region. Coral reefs are important for the marine life, because it provides a shelter for various amount of species.[3] Coral reefs also are the most diverse ecosystem in the whole aquatic system.[4] Without all the marine ecosystems, the marine food web and the whole ocean would be in danger of continuing in its current state.

Marine ecosystem threats

The threats that have impacted the marine ecosystems are pollution and overfishing. Pollution is impacting the marine ecosystems, because as more carbon dioxide is released into the air more of the ice caps are melting. Therefore, the rising of ocean levels and the decrease in salinity levels. Are causing problems for the marine life. If the salinity levels keep dropping the marine life that survive in salt water will not be able to survive in the fresh water rich waters. Pollution is killing marine animals not only in the salinity drop, but also they eat or get trapped in harmful garbage, marine life in the ocean die from swallowing or getting caught on trash everyday.[5] Over one million sea birds are killed by pollution every year. Also three hundred dolphin and porpoise are killed by pollution, by either swallowing trash or getting tangled in trash and one hundred thousand marine mammals are killed by ingesting plastics and other pollution substance every year. [6] Pollution is a major reason why marine ecosystems are being threatened. But, another threat to marine ecosystems are overfishing. Overfishing is a threat for marine ecosystems because a decrease in number of a species will effect the marine food web disrupting the whole ocean. If overfishing causes a specie to become extinct in the marine ecosystem then it will have one of the species in the ocean to become overpopulated. Once one specie becomes overpopulated then that organism dominates the ocean making other species to become endangered or extinct. The threats in the marine ecosystems can have an impact that the system will never repair itself, which will disrupt the world more then any other ecosystem would. However, the Government stepped in and passed an amendment that decreases overfishing. This amendment helps the ocean to recover the decrease of marine animals. The amendment puts a set limit for the marine species we manage.[7] In 2014, 91 percent of annual limits were nit exceeded and only 9 percent were exceed. There are numinous amount of reason why catch limits are being exceeded such as: miscount of population, by catch in a fishery, and fishing rates are higher than estimated. Scientist track these number to manage overfishing so population does not deplete more. [8]

See also

References

  1. [1],NOAA, 2015.
  2. [2], Oceana protecting the world's oceans,2015.
  3. [3],Climate central, 2015.
  4. [4],NOAA, 2015.
  5. [5],Climate central, 2015.
  6. [6], Conserve energy future, 2015
  7. [7], NOAA, 2015.
  8. [8], NOAA, 2015.


External links

  • How the whales are being disturbed [9], by NOAA Marine Studies
  • [10] - by NASA Marine Studies
  • This page is a study by NOAA about the marine mammals [11].
  • Helps people see the different species in the marine ecosystem [12], by Oceana, 2015
  • Shows the marine animals that are at risk [13], by EPA, 2015