Difference between revisions of "Glacier"

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This page is currently being authored by an undergraduate researcher at Penn State Brandywine. The page will be posted before the end of November 2015.
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Glaciers are bodies of ice, firn, and snow, built up over time when accumulation of snow exceeds ablation (i.e. melting) over a period of many years. Glaciers make up 10% of the world’s total land area, with the majority of global glacier ice found in the vast ice sheets of Antarctica and Greenland.
  
Glaciers are made of snow that has fallen over many years and because it moves very slowly from the location over the years it has become large solid ice. Glaciers make up 10% of the world’s total land area and they are located in the polar regions like Greenland and Antarctica. They are found in every continent around the world except Australia. <ref>[https://nsidc.org/cryosphere/glaciers/questions/what.html] National Snow & Ice Data Center, 2015</ref>  
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They are the largest source of fresh water on Earth, and as such mountain glaciers are an important water source for a large portion of the world's population, notably in the Indian subcontinent and South America.
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Glaciers are sensitive to long-term changes in the Earth's climate and global temperatures, and are a major source of global sea-level change.<ref>[https://nsidc.org/cryosphere/glaciers/questions/what.html] National Snow & Ice Data Center, 2015</ref>
  
 
== Melting Glaciers ==
 
== Melting Glaciers ==
Sea level has been rising little by little over the past century. Part of the sea level rising is due to breaking of icebergs and melting of our world’s land ice. The most important and major ice sheets are in Greenland and Antarctica because they contain about 75% of our world’s fresh water. <ref>[http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Features/PolarIce/polar_ice2.php] NASA Earth Observatory, 2015</ref>
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Sea level has been rising little by little over the past century. Part of the sea level rise is due to breaking of icebergs and melting of our world’s land ice. The most important and major ice sheets are in Greenland and Antarctica, because they contain about 75% of our world’s fresh water. <ref>[http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Features/PolarIce/polar_ice2.php] NASA Earth Observatory, 2015</ref>
  
=== What happens when they melt? ===
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[[File:CaveInGlacier.jpeg|200px]]
10% of our land is covered in ice all year around. If that ice were to melt it would end up in the oceans raising its levels. Once pieces of ice break and fall into the water, the heat is transferred to the ice more quickly than it is through air, which makes the ice melt faster. <ref>[http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/what-happens-when-glaciers-melt/] Scientific American, 2011</ref>  
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=== What happens when glaciers melt ===
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Ten percent of our land is covered in ice all year around. All that ice is made out of a large volume of water which if it melts it will end up in our oceans. This means our oceans' water level would rise. Once pieces of ice break and fall into the water, the heat is transferred to the ice more quickly than it is through air, which makes the ice melt faster. An example is putting ice cubes in a glass of water and seeing how the level of the water goes up and it stays at the same level because the ice is in the water. When the ice on land melts it flows in the water rising its levels more. <ref>[http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/what-happens-when-glaciers-melt/] Scientific American, 2011</ref>  
  
== How do glaciers move? ==
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[[File:IceShelf.jpeg|200px]]
Glaciers known as “rivers of ice,” actually move. The cause of the motion of glaciers is gravity. A glacier molds itself to the land and also sculpts the land as it slides down the valley. Glaciers slide on their beds, which makes them able to move faster. Clearly, if a glacier looses more than it gains it will soon turn into water. <ref>[https://www.asf.alaska.edu/blog/how-do-glaciers-move/] Alaska Satellite Facility, 2015</ref>
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== How glaciers move ==
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Glaciers are known as “rivers of ice” and actually move. The cause of the motion of glaciers is gravity. A glacier molds itself to the land and also sculpts the land as it slides down a valley. Glaciers slide on their beds, which makes them able to move faster. If a glacier looses more of its volume than it gains as it moves, the glacier will shrink in size. <ref>[https://www.asf.alaska.edu/blog/how-do-glaciers-move/] Alaska Satellite Facility, 2015</ref>
  
=== Why does this matter? ===
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=== Why this matters ===
Reducing the amount of things like gasoline for cars and coal burned for electricity can help slow the melting process of the ice. If the sea level rises due to the melting of glaciers it will affect us humans. Weather it is by creating natural storms or overflowing our neighborhoods with water. NASA’s research has shown that by 2050 about $66 - $106 billion worth of property is probable to sit below sea level. <ref>[http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Features/NASASeaLevel/?src=features-recent] NASA Earth Observatory, 2015</ref>
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Reducing the amount of human activities such as using gasoline for cars and coal burned for electricity can help slow the melting process of the ice. If the sea level rises due to the melting of glaciers it will affect humans and other coastal residents. NASA’s research has shown that by 2050 about $66 - $106 billion worth of property is probable to sit below sea level. If nothing is done to slow it down the land will be in trouble and will suffer the consequences. <ref>[http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Features/NASASeaLevel/?src=features-recent] NASA Earth Observatory, 2015</ref>
  
 
== See also ==
 
== See also ==
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== External links ==
 
== External links ==
Add any other relevant external links in the section.
 
 
 
* [https://books.google.com/books?id=Bd-uEKO7g4oC&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q&f=false Field Notes From a Catastrophe by Elizabeth Kolbert]
 
* [https://books.google.com/books?id=Bd-uEKO7g4oC&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q&f=false Field Notes From a Catastrophe by Elizabeth Kolbert]
 
* [http://climatekids.nasa.gov/ Climate Kids], NASA's Eyes on Earth.  
 
* [http://climatekids.nasa.gov/ Climate Kids], NASA's Eyes on Earth.  

Latest revision as of 09:06, 6 May 2018

Glaciers are bodies of ice, firn, and snow, built up over time when accumulation of snow exceeds ablation (i.e. melting) over a period of many years. Glaciers make up 10% of the world’s total land area, with the majority of global glacier ice found in the vast ice sheets of Antarctica and Greenland.

They are the largest source of fresh water on Earth, and as such mountain glaciers are an important water source for a large portion of the world's population, notably in the Indian subcontinent and South America.

Glaciers are sensitive to long-term changes in the Earth's climate and global temperatures, and are a major source of global sea-level change.[1]

Melting Glaciers

Sea level has been rising little by little over the past century. Part of the sea level rise is due to breaking of icebergs and melting of our world’s land ice. The most important and major ice sheets are in Greenland and Antarctica, because they contain about 75% of our world’s fresh water. [2]

CaveInGlacier.jpeg

What happens when glaciers melt

Ten percent of our land is covered in ice all year around. All that ice is made out of a large volume of water which if it melts it will end up in our oceans. This means our oceans' water level would rise. Once pieces of ice break and fall into the water, the heat is transferred to the ice more quickly than it is through air, which makes the ice melt faster. An example is putting ice cubes in a glass of water and seeing how the level of the water goes up and it stays at the same level because the ice is in the water. When the ice on land melts it flows in the water rising its levels more. [3]

IceShelf.jpeg

How glaciers move

Glaciers are known as “rivers of ice” and actually move. The cause of the motion of glaciers is gravity. A glacier molds itself to the land and also sculpts the land as it slides down a valley. Glaciers slide on their beds, which makes them able to move faster. If a glacier looses more of its volume than it gains as it moves, the glacier will shrink in size. [4]

Why this matters

Reducing the amount of human activities such as using gasoline for cars and coal burned for electricity can help slow the melting process of the ice. If the sea level rises due to the melting of glaciers it will affect humans and other coastal residents. NASA’s research has shown that by 2050 about $66 - $106 billion worth of property is probable to sit below sea level. If nothing is done to slow it down the land will be in trouble and will suffer the consequences. [5]

See also

Other closely related articles in this wiki include:

References

  1. [1] National Snow & Ice Data Center, 2015
  2. [2] NASA Earth Observatory, 2015
  3. [3] Scientific American, 2011
  4. [4] Alaska Satellite Facility, 2015
  5. [5] NASA Earth Observatory, 2015


External links