Difference between revisions of "Glacier"

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This page is currently being authored by an undergraduate researcher at Penn State Brandywine. The page will be posted before the end of November 2015.
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Glaciers are bodies of ice, firn, and snow, built up over time when accumulation of snow exceeds ablation (i.e. melting) over a period of many years. Glaciers make up 10% of the world’s total land area, with the majority of global glacier ice found in the vast ice sheets of Antarctica and Greenland.
  
Glaciers are made of snow that has fallen over many years and because it has not moved from the location for so long it has become large solid ice. Glaciers make up 10% of the world’s total land area and they are located in the polar regions like Greenland and Antarctica.  
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They are the largest source of fresh water on Earth, and as such mountain glaciers are an important water source for a large portion of the world's population, notably in the Indian subcontinent and South America.
  
== First heading ==
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Glaciers are sensitive to long-term changes in the Earth's climate and global temperatures, and are a major source of global sea-level change.<ref>[https://nsidc.org/cryosphere/glaciers/questions/what.html] National Snow & Ice Data Center, 2015</ref>
The main headings in the article are ''second'' level headings, defined with two equals signs in the wikitext. You never need to use the top-level heading style, defined with one equals sign, as it is reserved for article titles. As with a scientific article, you have plenty of freedom about how to organize your content, but the reader may have some expectations about the order and style that you may want to take into account. <ref>Mooney et al., 2013. [http://www.pnas.org/content/110/Supplement_1/3665.full Evolution of natural and social science interactions in global change research programs]. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, v. 110, p. 3665-3672.</ref>.
 
  
Start with a brief bit of background about the subject. Relate it to other topics, using plenty of links. Create links with a pair of square brackets around key technical words and phrases.
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== Melting Glaciers ==
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Sea level has been rising little by little over the past century. Part of the sea level rise is due to breaking of icebergs and melting of our world’s land ice. The most important and major ice sheets are in Greenland and Antarctica, because they contain about 75% of our world’s fresh water. <ref>[http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Features/PolarIce/polar_ice2.php] NASA Earth Observatory, 2015</ref>
  
=== Subheading ===
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[[File:CaveInGlacier.jpeg|200px]]
In longer articles, it may make sense to have another level of headings. There are not many occasions when you will need to use '''H4''' headings (four '''=''' signs), so don't go there unless it's unavoidable. Never use more than four.<ref>Matt Hall, 2013, pers. comm. Sorry, this is the best reference I can find.</ref>
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=== What happens when glaciers melt ===
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Ten percent of our land is covered in ice all year around. All that ice is made out of a large volume of water which if it melts it will end up in our oceans. This means our oceans' water level would rise. Once pieces of ice break and fall into the water, the heat is transferred to the ice more quickly than it is through air, which makes the ice melt faster. An example is putting ice cubes in a glass of water and seeing how the level of the water goes up and it stays at the same level because the ice is in the water. When the ice on land melts it flows in the water rising its levels more. <ref>[http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/what-happens-when-glaciers-melt/] Scientific American, 2011</ref>  
  
== Second heading ==
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[[File:IceShelf.jpeg|200px]]
[[File:Eagle-ford-gets-spotlight04.jpg|thumb]]
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== How glaciers move ==
You can add as many sections as you think you need to 'spiral out' from the core of the topic. Use judgment to decide when to split out a separate article.  
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Glaciers are known as “rivers of ice” and actually move. The cause of the motion of glaciers is gravity. A glacier molds itself to the land and also sculpts the land as it slides down a valley. Glaciers slide on their beds, which makes them able to move faster. If a glacier looses more of its volume than it gains as it moves, the glacier will shrink in size. <ref>[https://www.asf.alaska.edu/blog/how-do-glaciers-move/] Alaska Satellite Facility, 2015</ref>
  
=== Subheading ===
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=== Why this matters ===
In longer articles, it may make sense to have another level of headings. There are not many occasions when you will need to use '''H4''' headings (four '''=''' signs), so don't go there unless it's unavoidable. Never use more than four.<ref>Matt Hall, 2013, pers. comm. Sorry, this is the best reference I can find.</ref>
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Reducing the amount of human activities such as using gasoline for cars and coal burned for electricity can help slow the melting process of the ice. If the sea level rises due to the melting of glaciers it will affect humans and other coastal residents. NASA’s research has shown that by 2050 about $66 - $106 billion worth of property is probable to sit below sea level. If nothing is done to slow it down the land will be in trouble and will suffer the consequences. <ref>[http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Features/NASASeaLevel/?src=features-recent] NASA Earth Observatory, 2015</ref>
  
 
== See also ==
 
== See also ==
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* [[Avalanche]]
 
* [[Avalanche]]
* [[Marine Ecosystem]]
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* [[Marine ecosystem]]
  
 
== References ==
 
== References ==
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== External links ==
 
== External links ==
Add any other relevant external links in the section.
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* [https://books.google.com/books?id=Bd-uEKO7g4oC&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q&f=false Field Notes From a Catastrophe by Elizabeth Kolbert]
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* [http://climatekids.nasa.gov/ Climate Kids], NASA's Eyes on Earth.
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* [https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=06DdPb_DFo0 Michael Mann, Confronting the Climate Change Challenge] - Conversations at Penn State.
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* [https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ubTJXF5MwMc Climate Change Documentary].
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* [https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sfAswUeljQ0 Richard Alley's Climate Change Future] - Conversations from Penn State
  
* The home page of [http://www.bw.psu.edu/ Penn State Brandywine], the home of the EARTH 100 wiki article writers!
 
* [http://www.eoearth.org/ Encyclopedia of Earth] - one of the sites I want you to explore to look for supporting articles.
 
* You should also search the websites for NASA, NOAA, USGS, EPA, and the [http://education.nationalgeographic.com/encyclopedia/ National Geographic Education Encyclopedia].
 
* Please DO NOT list the long URLs here! Let the user hover over text to get to a website (such as the examples provided above).
 
  
 
[[Category: Basics]]
 
[[Category: Basics]]

Latest revision as of 09:06, 6 May 2018

Glaciers are bodies of ice, firn, and snow, built up over time when accumulation of snow exceeds ablation (i.e. melting) over a period of many years. Glaciers make up 10% of the world’s total land area, with the majority of global glacier ice found in the vast ice sheets of Antarctica and Greenland.

They are the largest source of fresh water on Earth, and as such mountain glaciers are an important water source for a large portion of the world's population, notably in the Indian subcontinent and South America.

Glaciers are sensitive to long-term changes in the Earth's climate and global temperatures, and are a major source of global sea-level change.[1]

Melting Glaciers

Sea level has been rising little by little over the past century. Part of the sea level rise is due to breaking of icebergs and melting of our world’s land ice. The most important and major ice sheets are in Greenland and Antarctica, because they contain about 75% of our world’s fresh water. [2]

CaveInGlacier.jpeg

What happens when glaciers melt

Ten percent of our land is covered in ice all year around. All that ice is made out of a large volume of water which if it melts it will end up in our oceans. This means our oceans' water level would rise. Once pieces of ice break and fall into the water, the heat is transferred to the ice more quickly than it is through air, which makes the ice melt faster. An example is putting ice cubes in a glass of water and seeing how the level of the water goes up and it stays at the same level because the ice is in the water. When the ice on land melts it flows in the water rising its levels more. [3]

IceShelf.jpeg

How glaciers move

Glaciers are known as “rivers of ice” and actually move. The cause of the motion of glaciers is gravity. A glacier molds itself to the land and also sculpts the land as it slides down a valley. Glaciers slide on their beds, which makes them able to move faster. If a glacier looses more of its volume than it gains as it moves, the glacier will shrink in size. [4]

Why this matters

Reducing the amount of human activities such as using gasoline for cars and coal burned for electricity can help slow the melting process of the ice. If the sea level rises due to the melting of glaciers it will affect humans and other coastal residents. NASA’s research has shown that by 2050 about $66 - $106 billion worth of property is probable to sit below sea level. If nothing is done to slow it down the land will be in trouble and will suffer the consequences. [5]

See also

Other closely related articles in this wiki include:

References

  1. [1] National Snow & Ice Data Center, 2015
  2. [2] NASA Earth Observatory, 2015
  3. [3] Scientific American, 2011
  4. [4] Alaska Satellite Facility, 2015
  5. [5] NASA Earth Observatory, 2015


External links