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A genetically modified organism is any organism or microorganism that has had part of its DNA changed in any manner except naturally, usually occurring when one organism's genes are transferred into a non-related species.  This is sometimes also called genetic engineering or recombinant DNA technology.
 
 
 
 
A genetically modified organism is any organism or microorganism that has had part of its DNA changed in any manor except naturally, usually occurring when one organism's genes are transferred into a non-related species.  This is sometimes also called genetic engineering or recombinant DNA technology.
 
 
 
  
 
== History ==
 
== History ==
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[[File:6840799106 619211e9c7 m.jpg|thumb|DNA]]
  
 
Paul Berg was the first to produce recombinant DNA molecules in 1972. <ref>"Paul Berg" (2004) Encyclopedia of World Biography. Retrieved November 09, 2015 from Encyclopedia.com: [http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G2-3404700597.html] </ref>. In 1973, building upon Berg's findings, Stanley Cohen and Herbert Boyer became the first to show that genetically modified DNA molecules could be cloned in foreign cells using biotechnology<ref>(2004) GNN - Genetics and Genomics Timeline. Retrieved November 9, 2015, from [http://www.genomenewsnetwork.org/resources/timeline/1973_Boyer.php] .</ref>. In 1976, biotechnology began being used on the commercial level to modify foods and medicines<ref name=byloos>Byloos, Matty A Brief History Of Genetically Modified Organisms: From Prehistoric Breeding To Modern Biotechnology. Retrieved November 6, 2015, from [http://www.medicaldaily.com/brief-history-genetically-modified-organisms-prehistoric-breeding-modern-344076] (2013, January 29)</ref>.  In 1981, due largely in part to Ralph L. Brinster and Richard Palmiter, the first genetically modified mouse was born<ref name=klein>Klein, Kathleen (2008) The Transgenic Mouse. Retrieved November 9, 2015, from [http://www.washington.edu/research/pathbreakers/1982b.html].</ref>.  Then, in 1983, came the first plant to have been modified unnaturally. This was a strain of tobacco developed to be antibiotic-resistant<ref>Fridovich-Keil, Judith L.; Diaz, Julia M. Profile of GMO | Genetically Modified Organisms and Food Crops. Retrieved from [http://www.planetmattersandmore.com/food-and-health-risks/profile-of-gmo-genetically-modified-organisms/] (2015, August 24).</ref>. In 1994, the United States approved the first genetically modified foods for human consumption<ref name=britannica>Diaz, Julia M. (2015, April 30) Genetically modified organism (GMO). Retrieved October 19, 2015, from [http://www.britannica.com/science/genetically-modified-organism].</ref>, and then in 1997 the first crop was planted on U.S. soil<ref name=oconnor> Johnson, Dave; O'connor, Siobhan (April 30, 2015) All the GMOs Approved In the U.S. Retrieved from [http://time.com/3840073/gmo-food-charts/]. </ref>. During 1997 the first genetically modified humans were born<ref name=bushak> Bushak, Lecia (2015, July 22) The World’s First Genetically Modified Babies Will Graduate High School This Year. Retrieved from [http://social.techcrunch.com/2014/09/28/the-worlds-first-genetically-modified-babies-will-graduate-high-school-this-year/].</ref>.
 
Paul Berg was the first to produce recombinant DNA molecules in 1972. <ref>"Paul Berg" (2004) Encyclopedia of World Biography. Retrieved November 09, 2015 from Encyclopedia.com: [http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G2-3404700597.html] </ref>. In 1973, building upon Berg's findings, Stanley Cohen and Herbert Boyer became the first to show that genetically modified DNA molecules could be cloned in foreign cells using biotechnology<ref>(2004) GNN - Genetics and Genomics Timeline. Retrieved November 9, 2015, from [http://www.genomenewsnetwork.org/resources/timeline/1973_Boyer.php] .</ref>. In 1976, biotechnology began being used on the commercial level to modify foods and medicines<ref name=byloos>Byloos, Matty A Brief History Of Genetically Modified Organisms: From Prehistoric Breeding To Modern Biotechnology. Retrieved November 6, 2015, from [http://www.medicaldaily.com/brief-history-genetically-modified-organisms-prehistoric-breeding-modern-344076] (2013, January 29)</ref>.  In 1981, due largely in part to Ralph L. Brinster and Richard Palmiter, the first genetically modified mouse was born<ref name=klein>Klein, Kathleen (2008) The Transgenic Mouse. Retrieved November 9, 2015, from [http://www.washington.edu/research/pathbreakers/1982b.html].</ref>.  Then, in 1983, came the first plant to have been modified unnaturally. This was a strain of tobacco developed to be antibiotic-resistant<ref>Fridovich-Keil, Judith L.; Diaz, Julia M. Profile of GMO | Genetically Modified Organisms and Food Crops. Retrieved from [http://www.planetmattersandmore.com/food-and-health-risks/profile-of-gmo-genetically-modified-organisms/] (2015, August 24).</ref>. In 1994, the United States approved the first genetically modified foods for human consumption<ref name=britannica>Diaz, Julia M. (2015, April 30) Genetically modified organism (GMO). Retrieved October 19, 2015, from [http://www.britannica.com/science/genetically-modified-organism].</ref>, and then in 1997 the first crop was planted on U.S. soil<ref name=oconnor> Johnson, Dave; O'connor, Siobhan (April 30, 2015) All the GMOs Approved In the U.S. Retrieved from [http://time.com/3840073/gmo-food-charts/]. </ref>. During 1997 the first genetically modified humans were born<ref name=bushak> Bushak, Lecia (2015, July 22) The World’s First Genetically Modified Babies Will Graduate High School This Year. Retrieved from [http://social.techcrunch.com/2014/09/28/the-worlds-first-genetically-modified-babies-will-graduate-high-school-this-year/].</ref>.
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[[File:16777131014_f95a9b92b8_q.jpg|thumb|Genetically modified GloFish]]
 
[[File:16777131014_f95a9b92b8_q.jpg|thumb|Genetically modified GloFish]]
  
Genetic modification is implemented to change an organism's genome in order to produce a desired trait not naturally found within that organism<ref name=britannica/>. The desired results vary widely. In some cases crops, are engineered to produce their own pesticides, effectively making themselves either pest or insect resistant<ref name=byloos/>. Others are produced to be herbicide resistant, allowing farmers to spray toxic chemicals without killing their own crops<ref name=byloos/>. While still in other cases, crops are engineered to produce higher yielding plants<ref name=britannica/>, or to insert vitamins that do not naturally occur within a given plant<ref name=oconnor/><ref name=britannica/>. Fish are currently modified to mature faster and produce more meat<ref name=phillips>Phillips, Theresa Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) | Learn Science at Scitable. Retrieved November 6, 2015, from [http://www.nature.com/scitable/topicpage/genetically-modified-organisms-gmos-transgenic-crops-and-732]  (2008)</ref>.  Mammals are genetically engineered to have desired traits such as a certain color of hair, skin, or eyes<ref name=bushak/>. Bacteria are currently modified to produce medicines or enzymes<ref name=byloos/>. Invertebrates, such as mosquitoes, are also modified to fight the spread of Malaria<ref name=britannica/>.
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Genetic modification is implemented to change an organism's genome in order to produce a desired trait not naturally found within that organism<ref name=britannica/>. The desired results vary widely. In some cases crops, are engineered to produce their own pesticides, effectively making themselves either pest or insect resistant<ref name=byloos/>. Others are produced to be herbicide resistant, allowing farmers to spray toxic chemicals without killing their own crops<ref name=byloos/>. While still in other cases, crops are engineered to produce higher yielding plants<ref name=britannica/>, or to insert vitamins that do not naturally occur within a given plant<ref name=oconnor/><ref name=britannica/>. Fish are currently modified to mature faster and produce more meat<ref name=phillips>Phillips, Theresa Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) | Learn Science at Scitable. Retrieved November 6, 2015, from [http://www.nature.com/scitable/topicpage/genetically-modified-organisms-gmos-transgenic-crops-and-732]  (2008)</ref>.  Mammals are genetically engineered to have desired traits such as a certain color of hair, skin, or eyes<ref name=bushak/>. Bacteria are currently modified to produce medicines or enzymes<ref name=byloos/>. Invertebrates, such as mosquitoes, are also modified to fight the spread of malaria<ref name=britannica/>.
  
== Organisms Modified ==
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== Organisms modified ==
  
 
Organisms which currently have had genetic modifications applied to their genome:
 
Organisms which currently have had genetic modifications applied to their genome:
[
+
<!-- Comment
 
=== Fish ===
 
=== Fish ===
 
Atlantic Salmon<ref name=olin> Van Eenennaam, Alison L; Olin, Paul G. (2006) Careful risk assessment needed to evaluate transgenic fish. Retrieved November 10, 2015, from [https://grist.files.wordpress.com/2010/09/riskassesstransgenicfish.pdf].</ref>, Carp<ref name=olin/>, Catfish<ref name=olin/>, Chinook Salmon<ref name=olin/>, Coho Salmon<ref name=phillips/>, Medaka<ref name=olin/>, Loach<ref name=olin/>, Platyfish<ref name=Rutovitz>Rutovitz, Jay; Mayer, Sue (April 2002) "Genetically cloned and modified animals. All in a good cause?" . Retrieved November 09, 2015 from Genewatch.org: [http://http://www.genewatch.org/uploads/f03c6d66a9b354535738483c1c3d49e4/GMAnimalsA4.pdf]</ref>, Rainbow Trout<ref name=olin/>, Rohu<ref name=olin/>, Swordtail<ref name=Rutovitz/>, Tilapia<ref name=olin/>, and Zebrafish<ref name=olin/>
 
Atlantic Salmon<ref name=olin> Van Eenennaam, Alison L; Olin, Paul G. (2006) Careful risk assessment needed to evaluate transgenic fish. Retrieved November 10, 2015, from [https://grist.files.wordpress.com/2010/09/riskassesstransgenicfish.pdf].</ref>, Carp<ref name=olin/>, Catfish<ref name=olin/>, Chinook Salmon<ref name=olin/>, Coho Salmon<ref name=phillips/>, Medaka<ref name=olin/>, Loach<ref name=olin/>, Platyfish<ref name=Rutovitz>Rutovitz, Jay; Mayer, Sue (April 2002) "Genetically cloned and modified animals. All in a good cause?" . Retrieved November 09, 2015 from Genewatch.org: [http://http://www.genewatch.org/uploads/f03c6d66a9b354535738483c1c3d49e4/GMAnimalsA4.pdf]</ref>, Rainbow Trout<ref name=olin/>, Rohu<ref name=olin/>, Swordtail<ref name=Rutovitz/>, Tilapia<ref name=olin/>, and Zebrafish<ref name=olin/>
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=== Plants ===
 
=== Plants ===
 
Alfalfa<ref name=oconnor/>, Apples<ref name=oconnor/>, Beets<ref name=oconnor/>, Canola<ref name=oconnor/>, Cichorium Intybus<ref name=oconnor/>, Corn<ref name=oconnor/>, Cotton<ref name=oconnor/>, Flax<ref name=oconnor/>, Papaya<ref name=oconnor/>, Plums<ref name=oconnor/>, Potatoes<ref name=oconnor/>, Rapeseed<ref name=oconnor/>, Rice<ref name=oconnor/>, Roses<ref name=oconnor/>, Soybeans<ref name=oconnor/>, Squash<ref name=oconnor/>, Sugar Beets<ref name=oconnor/>, Tobacco<ref name=oconnor/>, and Tomatoes<ref name=oconnor/>
 
Alfalfa<ref name=oconnor/>, Apples<ref name=oconnor/>, Beets<ref name=oconnor/>, Canola<ref name=oconnor/>, Cichorium Intybus<ref name=oconnor/>, Corn<ref name=oconnor/>, Cotton<ref name=oconnor/>, Flax<ref name=oconnor/>, Papaya<ref name=oconnor/>, Plums<ref name=oconnor/>, Potatoes<ref name=oconnor/>, Rapeseed<ref name=oconnor/>, Rice<ref name=oconnor/>, Roses<ref name=oconnor/>, Soybeans<ref name=oconnor/>, Squash<ref name=oconnor/>, Sugar Beets<ref name=oconnor/>, Tobacco<ref name=oconnor/>, and Tomatoes<ref name=oconnor/>
]
 
  
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{| class = "wikitable"
 
{| class = "wikitable"
 
!Fish
 
!Fish
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|}
 
|}
  
== Long Term ==
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== Long term ==
Although immediate changes may occur and seem to bolster the claims of a genetically modified organism, currently testing is not extensive and exact. Changes may continue to occur, within either the organism itself or of its ecosystem, with unintended effects in the long run.<ref name=britannica/>
+
Although immediate changes may occur and seem to bolster the claims of a genetically modified organism, currently testing is not extensive and exact. Changes may continue to occur, within either the organism itself or of its ecosystem, with unintended effects in the long run.<ref name=britannica/>
  
 
== See also ==
 
== See also ==
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* [[Biofuels]]
 
* [[Biofuels]]
 
* [[Extinction]]
 
* [[Extinction]]
 +
* [[De-extinction]]
  
 
== References ==
 
== References ==
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== External links ==
 
== External links ==
Add any other relevant external links in the section.
 
  
 
* [http://who.int/foodsafety/areas_work/food-technology/faq-genetically-modified-food/en/ Frequently Asked Questions about GMOs], World Health Organization
 
* [http://who.int/foodsafety/areas_work/food-technology/faq-genetically-modified-food/en/ Frequently Asked Questions about GMOs], World Health Organization
 
* [http://www.britannica.com/science/genetically-modified-organism Genetically Modified Organism], Encyclopaedia Britannica
 
* [http://www.britannica.com/science/genetically-modified-organism Genetically Modified Organism], Encyclopaedia Britannica
 +
* [http://www.actionbioscience.org/biotechnology/miller.html Designing insects], actionbioscience
 +
* [http://social.techcrunch.com/2014/09/28/the-worlds-first-genetically-modified-babies-will-graduate-high-school-this-year/ World's first genetically modified babies], Tech Crunch
 +
* [http://www.nature.com/scitable/topicpage/genetically-modified-organisms-gmos-transgenic-crops-and-732 Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs)], Scitable
 +
* [http://www.washington.edu/research/pathbreakers/1982b.html First transgenic mouse], Pathbreakers
 +
  
 
[[Category: Basics]]
 
[[Category: Basics]]

Latest revision as of 09:27, 24 November 2015

A genetically modified organism is any organism or microorganism that has had part of its DNA changed in any manner except naturally, usually occurring when one organism's genes are transferred into a non-related species. This is sometimes also called genetic engineering or recombinant DNA technology.

History

DNA

Paul Berg was the first to produce recombinant DNA molecules in 1972. [1]. In 1973, building upon Berg's findings, Stanley Cohen and Herbert Boyer became the first to show that genetically modified DNA molecules could be cloned in foreign cells using biotechnology[2]. In 1976, biotechnology began being used on the commercial level to modify foods and medicines[3]. In 1981, due largely in part to Ralph L. Brinster and Richard Palmiter, the first genetically modified mouse was born[4]. Then, in 1983, came the first plant to have been modified unnaturally. This was a strain of tobacco developed to be antibiotic-resistant[5]. In 1994, the United States approved the first genetically modified foods for human consumption[6], and then in 1997 the first crop was planted on U.S. soil[7]. During 1997 the first genetically modified humans were born[8].

Applications

Genetically modified GloFish

Genetic modification is implemented to change an organism's genome in order to produce a desired trait not naturally found within that organism[6]. The desired results vary widely. In some cases crops, are engineered to produce their own pesticides, effectively making themselves either pest or insect resistant[3]. Others are produced to be herbicide resistant, allowing farmers to spray toxic chemicals without killing their own crops[3]. While still in other cases, crops are engineered to produce higher yielding plants[6], or to insert vitamins that do not naturally occur within a given plant[7][6]. Fish are currently modified to mature faster and produce more meat[9]. Mammals are genetically engineered to have desired traits such as a certain color of hair, skin, or eyes[8]. Bacteria are currently modified to produce medicines or enzymes[3]. Invertebrates, such as mosquitoes, are also modified to fight the spread of malaria[6].

Organisms modified

Organisms which currently have had genetic modifications applied to their genome:

Fish - Atlantic Salmon[10], Carp[10], Catfish[10], Chinook Salmon[10], Coho Salmon[9], Medaka[10], Loach[10], Platyfish[11], Rainbow Trout[10], Rohu[10], Swordtail[11], Tilapia[10], and Zebrafish[10]
Invertebrates - Cnidarians[12], Coddling Moth[12], Drosophila Melanogaster(Fruit Fly)[12], Pink Bollworms[12], Medfly[12], and Mosquitoes[6]
Mammals - Dogs[6], Goats[6], Horses[6], Humans[6], Jellyfish[11], Marmosets[11], Mice[4], Pigs[6], Quail[11], Rabbits[11], Rats[11], and Sheep[11]
Microbes - Bacteria[6]
Plants - Alfalfa[7], Apples[7], Beets[7], Canola[7], Cichorium Intybus[7], Corn[7], Cotton[7], Flax[7], Papaya[7], Plums[7], Potatoes[7], Rapeseed[7], Rice[7], Roses[7], Soybeans[7], Squash[7], Sugar Beets[7], Tobacco[7], and Tomatoes[7]

Long term

Although immediate changes may occur and seem to bolster the claims of a genetically modified organism, currently testing is not extensive and exact. Changes may continue to occur, within either the organism itself or of its ecosystem, with unintended effects in the long run.[6]

See also

Other closely related articles in this wiki include:

References

  1. "Paul Berg" (2004) Encyclopedia of World Biography. Retrieved November 09, 2015 from Encyclopedia.com: [1]
  2. (2004) GNN - Genetics and Genomics Timeline. Retrieved November 9, 2015, from [2] .
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 Byloos, Matty A Brief History Of Genetically Modified Organisms: From Prehistoric Breeding To Modern Biotechnology. Retrieved November 6, 2015, from [3] (2013, January 29)
  4. 4.0 4.1 Klein, Kathleen (2008) The Transgenic Mouse. Retrieved November 9, 2015, from [4].
  5. Fridovich-Keil, Judith L.; Diaz, Julia M. Profile of GMO | Genetically Modified Organisms and Food Crops. Retrieved from [5] (2015, August 24).
  6. 6.00 6.01 6.02 6.03 6.04 6.05 6.06 6.07 6.08 6.09 6.10 6.11 6.12 Diaz, Julia M. (2015, April 30) Genetically modified organism (GMO). Retrieved October 19, 2015, from [6].
  7. 7.00 7.01 7.02 7.03 7.04 7.05 7.06 7.07 7.08 7.09 7.10 7.11 7.12 7.13 7.14 7.15 7.16 7.17 7.18 7.19 7.20 Johnson, Dave; O'connor, Siobhan (April 30, 2015) All the GMOs Approved In the U.S. Retrieved from [7].
  8. 8.0 8.1 Bushak, Lecia (2015, July 22) The World’s First Genetically Modified Babies Will Graduate High School This Year. Retrieved from [8].
  9. 9.0 9.1 Phillips, Theresa Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) | Learn Science at Scitable. Retrieved November 6, 2015, from [9] (2008)
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5 10.6 10.7 10.8 10.9 Van Eenennaam, Alison L; Olin, Paul G. (2006) Careful risk assessment needed to evaluate transgenic fish. Retrieved November 10, 2015, from [10].
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 11.5 11.6 11.7 Rutovitz, Jay; Mayer, Sue (April 2002) "Genetically cloned and modified animals. All in a good cause?" . Retrieved November 09, 2015 from Genewatch.org: [11]
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4 Miller, Thomas A. (2004, June). Actionbioscience | Designing Insects. Retrieved November 11, 2015, [12]

External links