1. Variation of velocity with frequency. Dispersion distorts the shape of a wavetrain; peaks and troughs advance toward (or recede from) the beginning of the wave as it travels. Leads to the concept of group velocity U distinct from phase velocity V. Where =wavelength, f=frequency, and V=phase velocity,
The dispersion of seismic body waves is very small under most circumstances, but surface waves may show appreciable dispersion in the presence of near-surface velocity layering. See Figure D-16. The dispersion of electromagnetic body waves is large in most earth materials. For ground roll and channel waves (see Figure C-2c, d), phase velocity decreases with frequency, sometimes called normal dispersion, and where velocity increases with frequency, inverse dispersion.
2. A statistical term for the amount of deviation of a value from the norm. See statistical measures.
3. Dispersión angular es la variación de la velocidad con la dirección, como en un medio anisótropo. Conduce al concepto de velocidad de rayo distinta de la velocidad de fase; Véase Figura A-14a.