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(ā’ lē ∂s) 1. Ambiguity resulting from the sampling process. Where there are fewer than two samples per cycle, an input signal at one frequency yields the same sample values as (and hence appears to be) another frequency (the sampling theorem). Half of the frequency of sampling is called the folding frequency or Nyquist frequency, fN. The frequency fNf appears to be the smaller frequency, fN–Δf. The two frequencies, fNf and fN–Δf, are ‘‘aliases’’ of each other. See Figure A-8. To avoid aliasing, frequencies above the Nyquist frequency must be removed by an alias filter (q.v.) (also called an antialias filter) before sampling. Aliasing is an inherent property of all sampling systems and it applies to (e.g.) sampling at discrete time intervals, as with digital seismic recording, to the sampling which is done by the separate elements of geophone and source arrays (spatial sampling), and to sampling such as is done in gravity surveys where the potential field is measured only at discrete stations, etc. 2. The wraparound (q.v.) consequent to a Fourier analysis over a limited range such as occurs with the 2D Fourier transform in the f,k domain (q.v.) and is illustrated in Figure F-11. See Sheriff and Geldart (1995: 282–282, 451–452).