# Category:Problems and Solutions

This is the category page for the book, *Problems in Exploration Seismology and their Solutions* by Lloyd P. Geldart and Robert E. Sheriff. All sections of the book can be read on the wiki below.

## Book description

Focusing on the basic theory required to solve practical problems, this book provides 212 problems, and solutions, which cover a wide range of issues, including least-squares methods, choosing velocities for various situations, z-transforms, determining 2D and 3D field geometries, and solving processing and interpretation problems.

This book is designed for students and for geophysicists who need a refresher on the basic theory required to solve practical problems. Geophysical texts often provide problems, but this book is unique in that it provides solutions also. The authors include a summary of the basic theory required to solve each problem. The 212 problems cover a wide range, including least-squares methods, choosing velocities for various situations, z-transforms, determining 2D and 3D field geometries, and solving processing and interpretation problems.

## Pages in category "Problems and Solutions"

The following 200 pages are in this category, out of 204 total.

(previous page) (next page)### A

- Accuracy of normal-moveout calculations
- Acquisition direction for marine 3D surveys
- Adachi’s method
- User:Ageary/Introduction
- User:Ageary/Theory of seismic waves
- Alias filters
- Amplitude variation with offset for seafloor multiples
- Amplitude/energy of reflections and multiples
- Apparent-velocity filtering
- Attenuation calculations
- Attenuation of air waves
- AVO versus AVA and effect of velocity gradient

### B

### C

- Calculating crosscorrelation and autocorrelation
- Calculation of inverse filters
- Calculation of reflector depths and dips
- Causes of high-frequency losses
- Characteristics of different types of events and noise
- Checking solutions
- Circle shooting
- Comparison of refraction interpretation methods
- Complex coefficient of reflection
- Complex-trace analysis
- Convolution and correlation calculations
- Cross-dip

### D

- Deconvolution methods
- Deducing fault geometry from well data
- Delay time
- Dependence of resolvable limit on frequency
- Dependence of velocity-depth curves on geology
- Depth and dip calculations using velocity functions
- Derivative and integral operators
- Destructive and constructive interference for a wedge
- Determining lithology from well-velocity surveys
- Determining reflector location
- Determining static corrections from first breaks
- Determining the nature of flow structures
- Determining vibroseis parameters
- Differential moveout between primary and multiple
- Diffraction from a half-plane
- Diffraction traveltime curves
- Digital calculations
- Dip, cross-dip, and angle of approach
- Directional geophone responses to different waves
- Directivities of linear arrays and linear sources
- Directivity of a harmonic source plus ghost
- Directivity of a source plus its ghost
- Directivity of linear sources
- Distinguishing horizontal/vertical discontinuities
- Disturbance produced by a point source
- Diving waves
- Dominant frequencies of marine sources

### E

- Effect of a hidden layer
- Effect of assumptions on refraction interpretation
- Effect of burial history on velocity
- Effect of coil inductance on geophone equation
- Effect of crosscurrents
- Effect of filtering on event picking
- Effect of horizontal velocity gradient
- Effect of local high-velocity body
- Effect of migration on fault interpretation
- Effect of migration on plotted reflector locations
- Effect of overpressure
- Effect of reflector curvature on a plane wave
- Effect of signal/noise ratio on event picking
- Effect of station angle on location errors
- Effect of time picks, NMO stretch, and datum choice on stacking velocity
- Effect of velocity change on VSP traveltime
- Effects of normal-moveout (NMO) removal
- Effects of weathered layer (LVL) and permafrost
- Equally inclined orthogonal geophones
- Estimating lithology from stacking velocity
- Evidences of thickening and thinning
- Extension of the sampling theorem

### F

- Far- and near-field effects for a point source
- Fault and stratigraphic interpretation
- Fault interpretation using time slices
- Faulting
- Feasibility of mapping a horizon using head waves
- Finite-difference migration – book
- Fourier series
- Fourier transforms of the unit impulse and boxcar
- Functional fits for velocity-depth data

### G

### H

### I

- Identification of events
- Improvement of signal/noise ratio by stacking
- Influence of direction on velocity analyses
- Interpretation by the plus-minus method
- Interpretation of a depth-migrated section
- Interpretation of four-shot refraction data
- Interpretation of salt uplift
- Interpretation of sonobuoy data
- Interpreting engineering refraction profiles
- Interpreting marine refraction data
- Interpreting stacking velocity
- Interpreting uphole surveys
- Interrelationships among elastic constants
- Interval velocities
- Inverse filter to remove ghosting and recursive filtering

### L

### M

### P

- Phase of composite wavelets
- Plotting raypaths for primary and multiple reflections
- Poission’s ratio from P- and S-wave traveltimes
- Porosities, velocities, and densities of rocks
- Problems in Exploration Seismology and their Solutions
- Proof of a generalized reciprocal method relation
- Properties of a coincident-time curve
- Properties of minimum-phase wavelets

### R

- Rayleigh-wave relationships
- Reflection and refraction laws and Fermat’s principle
- Reflection and transmission coefficients
- Reflection-point smear for dipping reflectors
- Reflection/refraction at a liquid/solid interface
- Reflection/refraction at a solid/solid interface and displacement of a free surface
- Reflection/transmission coefficients at small angles and magnitude
- Reflections/diffractions from refractor terminations
- Reflectivity versus water saturation
- Reflector dip in terms of traveltimes squared
- Refraction blind spot
- Refractions and refraction multiples
- Reinforcement depth in marine recording
- Relation between average and rms velocities
- Relation between lithology and seismic velocities
- Relation between nepers and decibels
- Relationship for a dipping bed
- Resolution of cross-dip
- Response of a triangular array
- Ricker wavelet relations

### S

- S-wave conversion in marine surveys
- Salt lead time as a function of depth
- Second approximation for dip moveout
- Seismic sequence boundaries
- Selecting optimum field methods
- Selecting survey parameters
- Semblance
- Solving equations
- Sosie method
- Space-domain convolution and vibroseis acquisition
- Spatial sampling restrictions
- Stratigraphic interpretation book
- Streamer feathering due to cross-currents
- Structural style
- Sum of waves of different frequencies and group velocity
- Suppressing multiples by NMO differences